CHAPTER 1 THE PURPOSE OF EDUCATION Introduction The overwhelming problems of the world have brought us to the verge of species' extinction. To overcome such extreme problems in human and environmental welfare requires radical changes in our life-styles, family relationships, world ethics, and general way of thinking about life. We must move in a direction opposite to the destructive force of world capitalism. In _The Nation_, Kirkpatrick Sale writes, What would it take to accomplish the serious, wrenching, full-scale readjustments that in fact are necessary to save the earth, including reduced standards of living, consumption and growth; severe population reduction; and a new, modest, regardful relationship with the earth and its species? Who is going to carry this literally vital message to the American people? And when? For the time, as every new crisis lets us know, is later than we think (595). It is the task of the educator to direct us to a more evolved state of consciousness where we can begin to plan a solar-powered feminist civilization, or what I call, Neutopia, where the ancient ills of racism, sexism, classism, and the like have been eliminated. What are the educational tools and who are the educators who can bring an awakening of this worldwide magnitude? The German philosopher, G.W.F. Hegel, in his work _On the Arts_ states, Poetry's chief task, it has been said, is to bring to consciousness the powers of our spiritual existence: all the to and fro in human passion and emotion or that runs tranquilly through our thoughts--the full range of human ideas, behavior, productivity, and all else that pertains to the world's destiny or divine governance. In this respect, poetry has been and is still mankind's [sic] primary and most universal teacher. To teach and learn means to know and experience for one's self what is (144). The poetic mission of education, to know thyself, has been corrupted by the greed and short-term gains of the military/industrial complex, so much so that "civilization" is in a state of chaos. People have lost sense of the meaning of life. War, crime, and oppression dominate the 24 hour news reports. An oligarchy, i.e., government by the dominate clique of wealthy and politically powerful families, channels the capitalistic ideology through education and the mass media. As the current situation continues to deteriorate, the question is: are the wisest, most noble people with the best judgment, abilities, and sense of global ethics in charge of education and the media? Certainly, the answer must be negative, since educators and the media have not revolutionized our world into a just social order, but are being used to stupefy the public in order to maintain the destructive consumer behaviors of the status quo. Now, it seems as though we live in a kakistocracy, a government by the worst people who, lacking long-term vision or social imagination, suppress enlightened visionaries, the artistic and scientific mythmakers. Mechanistic Neo-Darwinism and its technologies have become a brutal enemies of the arts, humanities, and organic sciences. The mystical, biospiritual parts of humankind's nature are being swept out the doors of our institutes of higher learning. In universities, for example, many interdisciplinary programs and other academic efforts outside the mainstream of traditional education are being eliminated in the name of economics and budget restrictions. I suggest that the reason may go deeper, for it is in these kinds of programs that alternative visions are frequently born and seriously considered--visions that can heal our sick world by challenging the power relationships and restoring the mission of the university to its idealistic purpose, to produce creative happy individuals who will take responsibility for solving the problems of the world. And it is precisely these visions that a dying patriarchal social order fears the most. Seekers of wisdom today find it extremely difficult to make it through higher education and then achieve positions of authority. People who are attempting to revolutionize the social fiction of the culture by using poetic approaches to research are being crushed by the wheels of the military/industrial mind-set who assert that in valid scientific methodology the observer is separated from the observed. This is in direct opposition to the Gaian approach to science, which believes that the two are inseparable. Microbiologist Lynn Margulis writes, "In the autopoietic framework, everything is observed by an embedded observer; in the mechanical world, the observer is objective and stands apart from the observed" (Margulis 1991, 227). The microcosm is within us. To understand science, we must explore the self. By thinking intuitively and following the wisdom of the ancient Delphic oracle--to know thyself--we find the universal answers to our global problems. The role of epic poetry is to reveal the inner depths of our being so that we can understand our natural surroundings. Poetic knowledge allows us to reason why humanity has not been living in harmony with nature and what we must do to correct our unjust behaviors. Recreating a story based on harmony between the two sexes can put an end to the war between the sexes and the environmental holocaust caused by our lack of self-knowledge. The poetic imagination exemplifies the art of love which is why Hegel called the poet "the universal teacher." However, we must go back to Plato's _Symposium_ to understand the real cause of our lack of knowledge about the power of love and why the poet has not become the universal teacher or the philosopher-king. Socrates claimed that the only thing he was knowledgeable about was love; otherwise he was ignorant. Even his knowledge of love was not first-hand, but mediated through Diotima, an old woman of Mantinea. Carrin Dunne, in her book, _Behold Woman: A Jungian Approach to Feminist Theology_, asks what this tells us about the nature of love. She writes, First, that an understanding of Eros is not like ordinary understanding since it is compatible with a consciousness of ignorance; second, that there is a feminine form of wisdom which goes beyond what can be achieved through rational dialectic. What Socrates has received from Diotima is both not his own in that he did not/could not figure it out for himself, and most profoundly his own since it emerges autonomously from his innermost, feminine soul" (59). One can argue that it is the female side of love which makes men conscious of their ignorance and enlightens them to reach for wisdom and truth. This could explain the reason why the ancient goddess religions which created peaceful cultures for thousands of years were founded not my men, but by women. These women probably ruled through religious symbolism. In _Women of the Celts_, Jean Markale holds the same opinion as Carrine Dunne of the role of the female deity in creating social harmony. The goddess teaches man that "love is altruistic and makes a thousand sacrifices." It is she who makes man's body and soul. He cannot find fulfillment without her. In turn, she needs him in order to become conscious of herself, to be assertive, and to find out what she can do. Markale writes, "The two sexes are inextricably linked. Man needs woman, woman needs man. Translated into mythological terms this becomes: man needs a goddess, and the goddess needs a man" (146). It is, therefore, impossible for there to be a prophet/philosopher without union with his feminine counterpart. Consequently, it is the wisdom of a female poetess/prophetess in union with the prophet/philosopher--let us call their vital bond the Gaia Messiah--who are savioress and savior of our species. The intensity of their relationship generates the charismatic power to stimulate others who come in contact with their deeper reality. Their only alternative to the current world situation is to revolutionize the "society that man built without her" (146). The epic poetess' mission and the purpose this study is to promote Gaian science as a state of mind using myth as a vehicle. William Irwin Thompson writes in his book _The Time Falling Bodies Take to Light_, "There is now no way to relate the evolution of the planet to the evolution of humans except through myth. The truth is that myth and art create the preconditions of consciousness out of which science arises" (47-48). The mythopoetess is a weaver of the public imagination, creating the moral fabric essential for evolutionary development. She becomes the midwife to a new heaven and a new earth, the doctress with the paradise metaphor necessary to evolve humanity's collective awareness to greater and more noble depths. Her incantations have the power to cure our planetary diseases. She is the Great Sorceress who heals, a philosopher-queen who finds an alternative pathway for humanity to finally discover the bliss of world peace. In _The Fortunes of Epic Poetry_, Donald M. Foester writes that Matthew Arnold held that science "will hereafter be completed not by religion and philosophy, but by poetry, the quality of which can be sensed even in a few lines of Homer, Dante, Shakespeare, or Milton" (213). Epic poetry, the oldest of literary forms, envisions the way to create a beautiful world. It is the direction science and technology must ethically take in order to assist in the stupendous effort to save the biosphere for eukaryotic life. It is the Gaian matrix where all poetic genres as well as where and the goddesses and gods originate. However, the Dorian invasion of Greece destroyed the peace-loving goddess-worshiping culture of the Minoan- Mycenaean civilization. Doric poets rewrote the epics so that the once all-powerful Great Goddess, in the persons of Athena (Wisdom), Metis (Intelligence), Hera (Courage), Themis (Justice) became subordinate to Zeus' rule. Metis, Hera, and Themis were married to Zeus relegating them to secondary roles. The worshippers of Athena, the virgin and blessed Goddess would not permit her to be married to Zeus. So instead the Dorians made her the daughter of Zeus. Zeus was warned by the Delphic Oracle that if he had a daughter, she would wrest his power away from him. In fear of loosing control of the world, he ate Metis who was pregnant with Athena. She remained there giving Zeus knowledge until finally Athena burst forth from Zeus' head. So it was not the mother who gave birth to Athena, but her father. This unnatural order of birth reflected the change to a patriarchal social order. Background to the Study This historical mythic background takes its contemporary form in the modernist era of the Enlightenment, the era of measure--of science and logos. It is my profound conviction that this era is coming to an end. The basic dichotomies of Enlightenment reason are no longer viable-- the divisions between rational/irrational, subject/object, nature/culture, and mythos/logos. Enlightenment thought favors the later masculine traits over the former, the feminine. Feminists proclaim this male-centered epistemology needs to radically change in order to liberate the Source, the female spirit of truth (Hekman 1990). Clearly the twentieth century has witnessed several significant movements which challenge the tyranny of Enlightenment reason, including education. In the contemporary world we can then turn to education to affect change. The re-emergence of the goddess as the source of inspiration and the new program of Neutopia for interdisciplinary education, creates a lovolutionary consciousness and personality needed to develop the means to rescue us from our dire situation. Unfortunately, education is currently under the spell of the mechanical world-view of the Enlightenment which, for example, treats doctoral candidates as if they were mindless robots within the bureaucracy. Dissertations are not considered to be works of art, and therefore are not considered to be works of wisdom, but in most cases are simply long academic papers written to fulfill bureaucratic requirements. It seems to me the reason why so many dissertations are written is not to advance knowledge and be a source of liberation, but to launch professional careers within the affluent society. In _The Report of the President's Commission of Campus Unrest_, the authors point out that the "American university was traditionally a status-conferring institution for middle and upper middle class families" (69). And Carl Roger writes in his book _A Way of Being_, The Ph.D. thesis has, in most universities, become a travesty of its true purpose. To follow one's informed curiosity into the mysteries of some aspect of human nature, out of that rigorous, personal, independent search to come up with a significant contribution to knowledge--this is the true picture of the Ph.D; but this is _not_ an accurate description of most doctoral dissertations today. We have settled for safe mediocrity, and frowned on creativity. If our concept of science is to change, our departments must change. If that change does not come about, psychology will become more and more irrelevant to the search for the truth of man [sic] (240). As the transmitter of culture, the university has been the way the oligarchy has maintained its control over democratic values. To be creative and find one's own voice is not accredited which means, it is almost impossible for artists, who are often experts in the intuitive and occult sciences, to receive doctorates for their discoveries. The establishment allows for little diversity of individual talents and skills to flourish within its restrictive borders. One must follow the dictates of the party line and form, or run the risk of not being awarded an advanced degree. Some faculty are afraid to support revolutionary ideas, even though they may sympathize with them, for fear of losing their jobs. In James Gleick's book, _Chaos_, about a new scientific theory, he writes, Then there are revolutions. A new science arises out of one that has reached a dead end. Often a revolution has an interdisciplinary character--its central discoveries often come from people straying outside the normal bounds of their specialties. The problems that obsess these theorists are not recognized as legitimate lines of inquiry. Thesis proposals are turned down or articles are refused publication (37). "The 1940 Statement of Principles on Academic Freedom and Tenure," agreed upon by the American Association of University Professors and the Association of American Colleges and endorsed by numerous professional associations, states that "institutions of higher education are conducted for the common good and not to further the interest of either the individual teacher or the institution as a whole. The common good depends upon the free search for truth and its free exposition." This suggests that the university is a neutral site within society, a place open to all ideas (Academe 1986). However, the statement goes on to say that teacher must "be careful not to introduce into his [sic] teaching controversial matter which has no relation to his [sic] subject." Does this mean that a teacher is not permitted to be a philosopheress or philosopher of life and to participate in the critical social issues of the day if she or he is a teacher of science? Thomas A. Dutton and Bradford C. Grant write in their essay, "Campus Design and Critical Pedagogy," "Schools can never be understood as neutral sites, removed from the conflicts of society. On the contrary schools are inherently complicated in the political, social, cultural, and economic relations of society" (Dutton and Grant 1991). In the 1960's and early 1970's when students were demanding teachers to take responsibility for social injustices all around them, specifically the Vietnam War, which to a large degree was being perpetuated by the educated class, many teachers felt it was their duty to move the counter-culture into the classroom. This went against the 1940 principles by bringing controversial issues into the classroom situation. Nevertheless, bringing the controversy into the classroom served to fulfill the teacher's greater commitment to the public good as well as the teacher's duty to be the spokespeople of truth. The belief that the university is a place of freedom of expression was challenged by the Free Speech Movement at the University of California at Berkeley in the fall of 1964. After campus officials suspended students for setting up tables which advocated political activity off-campus, the hypocrisy of officials stating that the university was a neutral site became clear. That Administration did not tolerate dissenters exposed its own political bias. Administrators feared student protest might lead to social anarchy. Certainly, much of the student protest movement was anarchistic which could account for its ultimate failure to revolutionize the culture. The weakness and the demise of the counter-culture was that it did not have a clear program to follow its revolutionary overthrow. A new moral philosophy was not available at that time so that the student rights movement became just a stance against the academic machine, not a complete change-over to a deeper sense of truth. The feminist world-view became grouped with other liberation movements in pluralist America and so was easily marginalized by the Establishment. The 1960's idealism was a prelude to what must happen to university campuses throughout the world to re-establish human integrity. Yet graduate programs continue to work as if the female doctoral student does not know what is best for her. In many cases she must conform to the established patriarchal ideology. There is little chance for her to question and challenge the authenticity of the ideology and its underlying assumptions. Faculty should be there to help students achieve their goals, give them constructive criticism, challenge their ideas, and be leaders in the quest for Truth. Their job should not be to hamper and stifle one's creativity, or to assign them with busy work which only wastes their valuable time. If a student can not find members of the faculty to support their research projects, there should be a democratic public forum where students could appeal their dissertation proposals. Now, there exists no such forum in American universities, which means that projects which go beyond the paradigm of Enlightenment reason have difficulty finding faculty members who are willing to go out on a limb and challenge the ruling elite. Unfortunately, there are a few members of the faculty whom I have met who have the courage to seek non-traditional and alternative ways to knowledge in finding the cures for our social problems. The educational system is a reflection of what is happening to the society as a whole. For the most part, creative people who have the resources to make our planet a healthy and beautiful place to live remain unacknowledged and are forced to find employment in unfulfilling and meaningless jobs. Since democracy is about the right of the individual to express her or his liberty in a collective way, one can conclude that the essence of democracy has been exiled from campus life. During a tape recorded interview with Mario Savio during the 1964 sit-in at Sproul Hall at the University of California at Berkeley, Savio says, Many students here at the university, many people in society, are wandering aimlessly about. Strangers in their own lives, there is no place for them. They are people who have not learned to compromise, who for example have come to the university to learn to question, to grow, to learn--all the standard things that sound like cliches because no one takes them seriously. And they find at one point or other that for them to become part of society, to become lawyers, ministers, businessmen, people in government, very often they must compromise those principles which were most dear to them. They must suppress the most creative impulses that they have; this is a prior condition for being part of the system (Draper 1965). Consequently, the committee system in graduate schools can be seen as an extension of the Oedipus Complex. The doctoral committee becomes God the Father who has the almighty power to grant one a degree which could be translated as food and shelter. In Rosemarie Tong's book, _Feminist Thought_, she paraphrases the ideas of Juliet Mitchell. Tong writes, In so far as the Oedipus complex is the vehicle of patriarchy, it represents what must be destroyed if women are to be liberated. But given that the Oedipus complex is patriarchy's expression of the individual's entry into culture, if it is destroyed, nonpatriarchal society must find a substitute for it or deteriorate into disordered, unlawed chaos (170). Feminism challenges not only our particular social arrangements, "but the very foundations of Western thought and social structure," that is, male privilege (Hekman 1990, 154). Neutopia gives us a feminist program which breaks through the Oedipus Complex to build a movement of world-wide evolutionary change. One can conclude that many faculty members are concerned more with the fate of their biological families, middle-class comforts, and protecting their private interests, than about working for planetary justice. We are at a turning point in history where we must realize our private everyday habits are causing the destruction of the biosphere. For us to evolve as a species, we must break through the incest barrier of our domestic and public lives, and began to connect with a pattern of development which is in balance with the Cosmos. The student protest movement and the counter-culture in the 1960's made an attempt to break the incest barrier by demanding human rights and decision-making power. Students were fed up with the adult world determining their educational experiences which were antiquated and unable to solve local and global problems. The movement focused on the social problems and injustices which needed to be addressed in order to create a just world. It stressed the need for education to foster individual creativity and imagination to build the good society while rejecting the "operational ideals of American society: materialism, competition, rationalism, technology, consumerism, and militarism" (President's Commission, 52). Women and minority students were demanding an equal voice in world affairs. Not only were the old social values of capitalism being destroyed by the movement, but an alternative vision of communalism was being explored threatening to end the traditional nuclear family arrangement, which is the basic economic unit within the patriarchal world-view. Presently, the general tendency seems to be that students in graduate programs must become "brownnosers" who serve the committee with complete obedience. The entire graduate process turns out to be a nasty political game in which the revolutionary thinker, the juno or genius, is seen as a threat to the status quo, and is usually forced into the position of an Outsider. Author Colin Wilson points out in his book _Religion and the Rebel_, We can formulate this rule, then: The ideal social discipline is the one that takes fullest account of the men of genius. When society no longer has such discipline, the men of genius become Outsiders: they feel lost; they no longer seem to fit into the social body" (131). Wilson says that there were historical periods when the Outsiders have fit perfectly within the social discipline. He says that during the Middle Ages the Church provided the atmosphere for "everyone in society, from the highest intellectual types to the meanest artisan" to contribute to the glory of the Church. He continues, "And this has been true of every "church" in history--Hindu, Buddhist, Zarathustrian, Taoist, Mahometan. When these churches were at the height of their health and strength, there were no "Outsiders"" (132). Of course, the Church did not provide all people with the means to be creative since woman were not allowed positions of prophecy in the hierarchy of male-dominated religious thought. And so women, who possess the knowledge of love, remained the unacknowledged outsiders in a world which has never understood or accepted this infinite power of the Cosmos. The majority of men have ignored its charms, rejected it as impossible, and condemned it as an abnormality. Wilson asks, "Is the Outsider strong enough to create his own tradition, his own way of thought, and to make a whole civilisation think the same way?" But the real question seems to be, in the case of woman, is, she strong enough to transform his destructive behaviors in the positive direction of rebuilding Gaia's temple? Wilson finally admits, The moment we begin to consider the great Outsiders, or the saints and mystics, we are forced to recognize that man does not know who he is. And our materialistic civilization, which seems so certain of itself and its aims, only helps to hide man from himself (149). Aim of the Study In light of the foregoing, this dissertation is essentially a study in understanding. It is less an effort to amass empirical data, quantify it, and draw conclusions than to engage in a theoretical and speculative study to comprehend our present dilemma as it suggests alternative directions for building a new and better society--Neutopia. This is a futurist approach to studies in global problems; our species is in extreme crisis requiring extreme solutions. To many people these radical solutions may seem far out and outrageous. More than one faculty member has advised me to compromise my ideas in order to get the degree. They say I must choose my battles and wait until after I graduate to fight the system which I know to be against human nature and the organic structure of the biosphere. Being a doctoral candidate in education, I cannot separate myself from my present situation and simply ignore the moral corruption within the institution. If I prostitute my ideas in order to receive a degree, what will my degree mean if I have lost my autopoietic integrity? My research will then lose its power to create change and therefore defeat the reason for this painstaking effort. From Plato's _Republic_ to Thomas More's _Utopia_, to Francis Bacon's _The New Atlantis_, Western literature is replete with utopian ideas. Yet these ideal societies never came to fruition. In this study I will not attempt a utopia, but attempt a synthesis of the best ideas of utopian literature in order to create a blue-print, however vague, for building a humanistic global civilization. In this sense, my dissertation symbolizes the move from logos to mythos, giving educators a new/old foundation to understand the Cosmos. Philosopheress Susan K. Langer writes in _Philosophy in a New Key_, "It is a peculiar fact that every major advance in thinking, every epoch-making new insight, springs from a new type of symbolic transformation. A higher level of thought is primarily a new activity; its course is opened up by a new departure in semantic" (200). Epic poetry can provide us with the new semantic. In Gisela Labouvie-Vief's essay, "Wisdom as integrated thought: historical and developmental perspectives," he points out the difference between mythos and logos. Mythos means "speech, narrative, plot, or dialogue." Mythos is a holistic approach to knowledge where the thought and thinker are one indivisible unit. Labouvie-Vief writes, "The object of thought is not articulated separately from the motivational and organismic states of the thinker; rather the thinker's whole organism partakes in the articulation of the object and animates it with its own motives and intentions" (Sternberg 1990, 56). From the bond between the knower and the known derives the meaning of the experience. This existential point of view regards the individual as one who is involved in the universe, not just a mere spectator. Guiding Questions In understanding the movement from logos to mythos it is necessary to explore the function of epic poetry and its role in providing a new foundation for global education. This will entail extensive interdisciplinary research into the study of the future. I will attempt to weave together different fields of study into a holistic pattern to create Neutopian thought. A series of questions will focus the discussion for each field of study: 1. Central to an attempt of this sort is the idea of creating world peace. What is the nature of philosophic love (the desire for knowledge) in creating a peaceful world? What is the nature of erotic love (the desire for human community)? What is the relation of these kinds of love and how do they relate to change? How does love create a new meaning between the sexes? What kind of environment fosters love to grow between the people of the world? 2. Equally important are politics and the related studies of ecology, history and sociology in understanding the planetary conflicts. What are the lessons to be learned from our environment which is being destroyed by the failed political systems of the military/industrial complex? What are the origins of "Western Civilization" which have caused the environment to deteriorate? 3. Then we shall ask the question: how do children visualize "home?" Why has the "home" been the place of women's oppression? To answer this question we will look at the two basic archetypes in architecture: the aedicule and the trilithon. Finally, we will discuss the reason for the failure of modern architecture to cure our ancient social ills. 4. A new world, a reformed environment must be re- built from the old and built anew. What are the lessons to be learned from the failures of science, technology and ethics since the inception of the Enlightenment? Do we have the blue prints to create an environment which is ecologically sound? Paolo Soleri and Buckminster Fuller figure largely in dealing with these issues. We shall also look at the Biosphere II experiment as an archetypal change in architecture. 5. The question of leadership is crucial to the formation of Neutopia. Much of my research will focus on the problem of the "creative minority" and their place within the evolutionary process. What is the role of the hera and the hero in manifesting Neutopian thought? How can education promote meritorious excellence while ensuring democratic egalitarianism? Frequently, the best individuals withdraw from society into solitude to formulate their insights into a culture. Through their creative example they emerge from their solitude with the power to stimulate the masses to challenge the tyrannical forces. However, Toynbee warns that if the new leaders of creativity become relaxed and lazy, or harsh and tyrannical, the revolutionary activity will break down. Then the creative minority becomes but another dominant minority who acquire power by privilege. When this happens the juno or genius once again becomes the outsider. Is this inevitable? 6. Beauty is a necessary ingredient to any human project; therefore, artistic considerations will be of primary importance as I attempt to outline a new philosophy of art. What does magic and alchemy do in helping to create a new global civilization? My study will then carry us to the edge of time as we ponder various forms of divination to discover the workings of prophetic insight into the poetic language of the One World Mind. The goal of my dissertation, as Marx says about the goal of life, is not "only to interpret the world, but to change it." To change the world we will see that we must break our maternal ties with Mother Earth and begin a new relationship with the Crone Goddess in order to have the wisdom necessary for planetary management. Since ancient times religious writings have rendered the basic teaching within a particular culture giving the culture moral fiber essential for the growth of a collective vision. The task of the epic poetess is to be sensitive to the story of the age and to personalize the story from within her own life. Consequently, she becomes the spokeswoman for the collective needs of the people. In _One World Religion_, Kenneth L. Patton writes, "When we cease ascribing the religious scriptures to the revelation of the gods, to whom then do we credit for the bibles of humanity? There is only one possible answer: we must thank the poets of the human race" (125). I feel as though I did not choose the epic, but the epic chose me, as if I have become driven with divine madness. The greek root for "mad" is "mei," which means "to change, go, or move," as seen in such words as "permeate, permut, transmute, molt, mutate, migrate" (Dunne 1989, 58). Dunne writes, The Dionysiac mind is one which moves past human boundaries, and is perhaps the dissolution of those boundaries, of the properly human form, which feels to us like anger if we identify with the human form, or like ecstasy if we identify with the mind which moves past it. It ranges both above and below the human limits into the unthinkable and the unconditional, the unbearable and the inexhaustible, the immoral and the immortal, the outrageous and the outstanding (Dunne 1989, 58). The Dioysiac mind is irrational or superrational. It is the mind of the Muses of poetry, prophecy, and the arts, a state of mind beyond human control, understanding, or explanation, even though it is not beyond apprehension and exploration. Dunne writes, "It is the deeper and larger mind which gives birth to, sustains and supports, and finally tears apart, chews up, and swallows into semi-oblivion a rational thought process (a philosophy, a scientific theory, a political system, a psychology), only to spit forth another fresher one instead" (Dunne 1989, 58). Abraham H. Maslow believes the goal of education is to help one find one's bliss. Certainly, this epic helped me to find my bliss. The new story, which must be told, is one which brings the alienated souls of human beings back in touch with the divine microbial Superorganism, the one inner truth of existence, so that we will have a common understanding in which to be able to communicate between ourselves and build a planetary culture of love and peace. CHAPTER 2 A NEUTOPIAN ALTERNATIVE: TRANSFORMING THE GLOBAL SHOPPING MALL Introduction There is an urgent message in much of the material I am exposed to as a futurist through books, magazines, television documentaries, lectures, seminars, conferences, and personal intuition. It all seems to reach a similar conclusion, that is, we must attempt to change the values in nearly every field of human endeavor to come together to form a new planetary urban design for our cities, or witness the destruction of human life on earth. This chapter will serve as a review of futurist literature as it pertains to a new social vision. Futurist Willis W. Harman, in responding to the issue of what it will take to prevent nuclear war writes, The answer: a total change of mind-set around the globe. Nothing less. Nuclear arms control and non-proliferation efforts won't do it. Peace research and teaching non-violence won't do it. Surely more annihilative weapons on both (or all) sides won't do it. Essentially: a total change of mind-set (Farren 1983, 55). Of course a total change in mind-set means a totally new way of living and such a new way of life brings us to the focus of this chapter: the urgent need for a revolutionary philosophy to enact a world neutopian city design. Murry Bookchin writes, "The goal of revolution, today, must be the liberation of daily life. Any revolution that fails to achieve this goal is counter-revolutionary" (Kostelanetz 1971, xxxii). For the first time through city design we can build highly sophisticated space-age cities which liberate us from the toil of our daily lives, cities where our creativity is nourished, not obliterated, cities where creativity is the basis of the prestige system, and not a source of alienation as they are now. As well, the space we occupy sets the conditions of the way of life. Hence our perspective, the background to underlying existence is determined by where we live. It is up to futurists to revolutionize the way of dreaming about the future: thinking, playing, and working so that we can begin building cities which are founded on new, truly humanistic values. The Need for a Long-term Vision In order to build a new city design we must evolve beyond the short-term economic and cultural goals which do not provide long-term survival. Kenneth E. F. Watt writes, in his essay "Planning--So There Will Be a Future," that contemporary society is based on an instant culture which means that we are unwilling to "sacrifice short-term pleasures for long term benefits" (Fadimen & White 1971, 110). He illustrates his point by informing the reader that the three large pyramids of ancient Egypt took about twenty years each to construct. The average life span of people at that time was about 35 years. Thus the ancient Egyptians were willing to begin a project that would take over half-a-lifetime to complete. Another example of long-term projects are the cathedrals of the 11th, 12th, and 13th centuries which took several generations to complete. In modern America, the race to the moon, the most ambitious project we have undertaken, took 12 years to complete, about one-sixth the average life span of a person. Redesigning the world so that everyone will have a decent and creative future requires people to evolve beyond short-term pleasures for long-term visions of the future. Without working towards long-term visions, the instant culture remains oblivious to long-term problems and needs, as for example, the problem of hunger and where food will be grown in the future when the soils of prime farmlands are completely depleted of nutrients or converted into tract housing. Professor Daniel Hillel gave an excellent example of this in his recent lecture entitled, "Soil, Water, and Civilization," at the University of Massachusetts. He said that the modern-day Egyptians use bricks to build their houses. However, the bricks cannot be made out of the sand of the desert, so farmers of the Nile delta are selling their soil to make bricks for their houses. Such instant culture is unfulfilling; furthermore it is dangerous. Manufactures make artifacts not for long-lasting benefits and recyclability, but for short-term use for big turnovers and profits. Artifacts should be made to be long-lasting, bringing worker's pride back into the craft or product. A sense of making materials to the best of one's ability is essential to the de-alienation of labor. The results of our instant culture have lead us on two destructive paths: 1) the prospect and preparation for nuclear war and 2) the dramatic climatic changes due to the burning of fossil fuels and the cutting down of the world's forests on a massive scale which started during industrialism. Even if war was to be abolished, the environmental holocaust would still be haunting us as we continue to develop the land in impractical, short-term ways. In _The Nature of Cities_, Kenneth R. Schneider writes, I suspect that Western philosophy, which laid superb foundations for science, did not provide society with ways to avoid the environmental debacle we now face. No minds set forth a vision of a liberal environmental or urban order comparable to the contributions of Locke and Hume to the Declaration of Independence and the Constitution. Consequently, we are in a society that wildly exploits the natural environment and blithely builds destructive urban environments (253). The Good City The ancient Greeks realized that the good life meant the good city. It was said the heart of civilization is the city. In the Greek city-state the civic center was also the home of the city's deities: the acropolis. The acropolis was the place of intellectual debate and conversation. However, the acropolis was eventually superseded by the agora, the market-place. Alas, post-modern cities are still a product of the market-place. Buildings are randomly built without a concept of the whole city. There are no adequate public places in our cities where artists and intellectuals come together to discuss solutions for the problems we face. Schneider affirms, "Up to now, the city has attracted broad imagination or inspiration only in its fragments, not in its wholeness. The whole city deserves attention as one of the most liberating integrators of human wisdom, sensibility and, inevitably, power" (Schneider 1979, 20). The human race has failed to envision an evolved image of the city. Modern cities are divided so that urban parcels are isolated. Together the urban parcels make up a fragmented city. In the United States the largest sector of the built environment is made up of the "suburban sprawl." This sprawl consists of class-segregated, single-family homes served by shopping malls and commercial strips connected by freeways. Slavery to the House The nuclear family home is expected to be a self-sufficient society. This situation is structurally anti-feminist since private kitchens, laundry rooms, and home childcare re-enforce the image of the women's place in the home. Polly Wynn Allen's book, _Building Domestic Liberty_, describes the vision of Charlotte Perkins Gilman (1869-1935). Allen explains that Gilman felt it was unfair to expect married women to become experts in cooking, childcare, cleaning, home management, and nursing: in effect, to become house-servants. Allen writes, "the home was preventing children from learning the meaning of social justice" (73). Children were raised to depend on the social injustice, not to question it. Gilman felt it was futile to seek social change outside the home which when it was the home was the source of the injustice. A key to our liberation and survival is creating a partnership society, a society were women have the same accesses to achieving empowerment and social responsibility as men. In _The Chalice and the Blade_, Riane Eisler writes, "the direction of cultural evolution--including whether a social system is warlike or peaceful--depends on whether we have a partnership or a domination social structure" (28). Nature, women, and children have been dominated and repressed by the androcracy (government by the male sex) which has imposed its "man-made environment." In the late twentieth century we have begun to realize that a woman's place is not in the home; however, we continue to live as if this was so. City growth has not evolved to meet the needs of the liberated mother. Earlier in the century, Trotsky realized that the Russian revolution had failed because it didn't bring about a change in family relations. In order to change family relations a new holistic architectural plan of the city is essential. One reason why women's liberation and a redefinition of the home is a key to our planetary survival is that it has been proven that when women have satisfying, creative, and socially responsible roles other than wives and motherhood, the population rate declines even more than when birth control methods and family planning education are available. In order to control the population rate, women need cities which support and encourage their public and creative aspirations. The nuclear family house discourages women from pursuing meaningful life-long work since the maintenance and mortgage of the house and other family pressures make it extremely difficult for women to pursue creative dreams. The fabricated consumerist's dreamhouse becomes the slave house as both parents work at unfulfilling jobs to pay the rent. During the "Symposium on Politics and Architecture" at the University of Pennsylvania, Hans Harms said that "individual houses, whether done by Nazis or by suburban builders here, prescribe a certain life style. They isolate people and help to sell consumer products to separate nuclear families. They also tend to reinforce existing hierarchies and sexist separations" (Collins and Placzek 1980, 168). Since the nuclear family is an exclusive group, the "isolated family tries to have several children in order to create a mini-community" (Ruether 1975, 208). Rosemary Ruether states that in order to control the population we must move into communal, child-rearing residential groups. She believes that In a communal family, children would grow up with a sense of a large group of "brothers and sisters." A bonding of children of a group of families would develop, extending the child's own peer group and also gaining relations with a large group of other adults who are personally concerned with her or him. The personal child-parent relationship would not be destroyed, but it would be supplemented by a larger group of siblings, mothers and fathers, and older brothers and sisters, much as is the case today where the family is still rooted in clan and tribe. Adults who do not have their own children would also have an opportunity to nurture and develop the lives of children. Children would have a sense of a variety of other adults, older children and peers to whom then could turn for resources that might not exist in their immediate families. Fifty adults might have between them about twenty or twenty-five children which would still afford a bountiful community of children, but rapidly return the population to a level which the earth would be better able to support" (208-209). Ruether insists that a new communalized architecture is needed to achieve these family arrangements, an architecture which "balances private and corporate dimensions of life" (208). She places this necessary change in context to a "new urban planning to integrate living with work" (208). A New Communal Architecture Plans to create a new communal architecture are seen as threatening to the very foundation of American family life since communalism subverts the whole idea of private property. John P. Dean writes in _Home Ownership: Is it Sound?_, that communalism "is probably the most radical solution to the need for shelter, both in the sense of its romantic recall of simple, primitive society and in its disavowal of property-ownership and family ties" (242). Certainly this fear of communalism, by builders and realtors, was witnessed when PWA public housing in the United States provided better shelter and more social services than private housing. In 1934, Charles Ascher wrote that low-cost housing could not only provide cheap shelter, but could be a prototype for a new way of living with "community laundries, organized adult education and recreation, forums, libraries, pre-school child rearing and care, [and] consumers' cooperatives" (Friedman 1968). Realtors and builders claimed that the attractiveness of public housing was discouraging people from moving into home ownership (Wright 1981, 227). And so, public housing was reduced to having no public services and located in undesirable locations. Lawrence M. Friedman writes in _Government and Slum Housing_, the "Urban renewal program, as it exists, was not designed as a plan to solve the housing problems of the poor, nor has it acted as such. Without radical change, it never will." He quotes James W. Rouse who says that slum clearance and public housing is an exercise in futility since it is the whole city which had to be revolutionized in order to create "self-contained neighborhoods which have a soul, a spirit and a healthy pride--neighborhoods which people will vigorously defend against the forces of decay" (140). Planet Metropolis Our failure to envision an evolved world/city has brought some people to the conclusion that humanity has not reached a civilized state yet. Bruce Gross writes, "We find no other animal species that has been as savagely destructive as humankind. In moral terms, civilization is something that has not yet existed...might humankind perhaps build the first civilized human society?" (Schneider 1979, 288). Today it is difficult to determine where the city begins and the rural area starts. The market-place city has become a malignance on the surface of the earth. The desire for the isolated home which fragments the city is one of the major, if not the major, cause for _the_ destruction of the earth's ecology. Our society makes people cruel, criminal, sick, and ugly by trapping us into the filthy air of urban decay or imprisoning us in the isolation of suburbia. Soil, air, and water is carcinogenic; housing is alienating. The planet is quickly becoming, according to Robert Jungk, a "planet metropolis." Our cities are growing into one another, cutting out wilderness areas, and causing the extinction of thousands of plants and animals. For instance the eastern coastline is becoming completely suburbanized from Boston to Washington, called "Boswash," with a population of 80 million people. "Chipitz" extends from the Great Lakes, Chicago to Pittsburgh where 40 million people live. Another example of the same situation developing outside of the United States is the area from Tokyo to Osaka extending over 600 miles. We are slowly becoming one universal city which is basically as anti-ecological and anti-human as it is technological. They could only have been made possible by the automobile. Scheider asserts that the city has been destroyed by the private automobile. In the United States, two and three car garages are filled with upwards of more than 100 million privately owned cars. In developing nations these garages would be adequate housing by themselves. The United States is 13th in world population, but use 41% of the passenger cars to support its American life-style. Edward Cornish, in his book _The Study of the Future_, points out that "neither the American people nor their representatives in Congress ever voted to accept the automobile, for which they pay such a terrible price" (7). The automobile was never intelligently discussed as to its effects on human life, but was introduced and institutionalized by the market-place. As the suburban sprawl continues to grow our civilization is, in the Greek sense, losing its heart: its cities. Scheider continues, Cities are a multicause, multieffect failure of our society. The failure of science and technology, economics and bureaucracy, politics and democracy, tradition and philosophy. Although each of these spheres of endeavor has achieved success separately--spectacularly in some cases--together they have failed to create an efficient, congenial, and sociable environment for people in cities (Scheider 1979, 35). Lust for Isolation The first Americanized word in the English language was created on the Mayflower in the Plymouth Harbor. The men on board drew "lots" to decide which parcels of land they would own in the new world. "Lots" is the first Americanized English word, establishing the American dream of privately-owned home ownership. The dream of home ownership needs rewriting, since we must look beyond it to dream of a new vision where everyone lives in peace with food, shelter, education, a clean environment, material equality, and a good government. For only a new world dream can build new communal, hightech, solar-powered cities which are free from the automobile and the pollution of fossil fuels. In order to evolve beyond the post-modernist nightmare, we must re-define the concept of property and the American dream. Scheider spells out the problem of "the classic American house," the one-family dwelling on a one-family lot, is designed to achieve isolation and separation almost to the extent of one's means. The more affluent an individual becomes, the more that person's status and resources impel him or her into social exclusion and defensive isolation. Common spaces, common facilities, mutual interest organizations, and interpersonal bonds are lacking, almost forbidden, in the channels of social action (Scheider 1979, 186). A case of this lust for isolation was witnessed in 1989 in the Massachusetts courts. Jacqueline Kennedy Onassis bought one of the last pieces of Wampanoag Indian land on Gay Head which sits in the middle of her 370-acre estate. The beach front area in dispute was 1.5 acre. By consolidating her holdings Mrs. Onassis felt her summer home and guest house would be more private, secluded, and secure. One will never be a free person by escaping to a luxurious estate. It is in the city designed for the harmonious interaction between people where freedom lies. Schneider writes, "Reduced to its essence, the human significance of all theory and design of the city is freedom" (Schneider 1979, 300). The good city is a place where "sharing land and exchanging skills, wealth, resources, creativity, and human warmth enormously en- larges the skills, resources, and humanity of everyone" (98). Through building a sharing city we will find our humanity and the beginning of a worldwide renaissance. The individual needs the city in order to self-actualize for without a sense of community the personality is paralyzed: this is because the interpersonal nexus is the most important part of human existence. Schneider writes, "The city is society's most positive and complete human creation, at once shaping the human dream and manifesting our progress towards that dream" (177). The dream of a new city design, designed to provide adequate private and communal space allowing everyone equal access to the pursuit of happiness, is an essential evolutionary. An architectural blueprint of a holistic city design allows the individual to see the collective plan. The Alienation of the Built Environment Schneider believes that the real threat to human freedom is not repressive governments but "building a chaotic and profoundly restrictive set of environments which then multiply the social and organizational forces of alienation" (209). Hegel is the philosopher who coined the word "alienation." He defined it as "a separation of existence from essence." Or as Schneider phrases it, "a separation of life from experience" (215). The technology of television has especially entrenched our culture in alienation. We rarely come together to dance or play music now that we can watch it on T.V. We have separated ourselves from ourselves, building structures which reinforce our anti-social behavior. Schneider also points out that we have tried to cure alienation through the professions of "psychiatry, group therapy, counseling, probation, social work, police, attorneys, and judges" (215). Schneider writes, "By focusing on the alienated person rather than on the sources of alienation throughout urban society, such professions help perpetuate what they were created to cure" (215). In the right environmental setting, encouraged and assisted, Schneider says "people love to sing, perform, play, dance, demonstrate, parade, draw, paint, design, form, build, fashion, read, study, theorize, write, search, compose, experiment, teach, recreate. They perform these activities best when individuals and groups can associate, interact, cooperate, and compete freely and creatively" (24). The marketplace city does not promote these vibrant creative experiences; rather we experience inhumane environments. Schneider asks us to think about how human an environment it is to walk down a traffic island at rush hour. An Ecological Revolution The editors of _Global Ecology_, John P. Holdren and Paul R. Ehrlich write, There are no panaceas for the mess we are in. Neither green revolutions, nor population control, nor all the technology man can muster will alone salvage the future. What is required is no less that a revolution in human behavior, one which embodies fundamental reforms in our economic and political institutions, coupled with the wisest technological enterprises, the necessary ingredient of population control, and a new perception of man's [sic] place in nature. Since such a revolution must embrace all the relationships which bind man to his fellows [sic] and to the living and nonliving environment, it is appropriate to call it "an ecological revolution" (1). An ecological revolution requires a change in urban design creating a new consciousness which can foster a new form of governance. One experiment in such a new urban design is the arcology, a word coined by Paolo Soleri by combining the words architecture and ecology to describe his design for a new urban environment for the 21st Century. Acologies function as centers of education: every part of the city is part of the university where people of all ages have access to information, instruction, and places to follow their intuitions and interests. Presently, a bureaucracy governs the university system in the United States; in an arcology, the university/city system is governed by a meritocracy of an open body elite of educators, a system where the scholars, artists, and scientists are involved in creating and educating the masses to a common world vision. In _What Will It Take to Prevent Nuclear War?_, Norie Huddle declares, "We need to image a shared positive vision of the future, one so inspiring we can all basically agree that it would constitute a better way" (Farren 1983, 55). For the first time in history we now have the ability to create "leisure cities," automated megastructures which allow every individual the time and means to self-actualize. In these arcologies no juno or genius would go undiscovered or wasted. Justus Dahinden states, "leisure activities involve participation, a change from the working routine, and a recreational occupation free from group rivalry and egotism. It has a genuinely recuperative effect and is only possible within a rehumanized urban environment" (Dahinden 1972, 93). The meaning of leisure in Greek is "learning," therefore, leisure cities are places where learning, the creative life-force, guides society on a progressive future path. In the cities, citizens will seek to do work that they love, and through this love they will find out what they do best and hence find their role in society. Work and leisure will fuse together allowing the individual the freedom to pursue her or his innate knowledge. How can one even imagine the kind and quality of a society which is working on such a large and long-term plan? In the 1960's we were on the verge of such a revolutionary consciousness, however, as Hannah Arendt wrote in _Crisis of the Republic_, Revolutionaries do not make revolutions! The revolutionaries are those who know when power is lying in the street and when they can pick it up. Armed uprising by itself has never yet led to a revolution. Nevertheless, what could pave the way for a revolution, in the sense of preparing the revolutionaries, is a real analysis of the existing situation such as use to be made in earlier times. To be sure, even then these analyses were mostly very inadequate, but the fact remains that they were made. In this respect I see absolutely no one, near or far, in a position to do this. The theoretical sterility and analytical dullness of this movement are just as striking and depressing as its joy in action is welcome" (206). Revolutionaries do not make revolutions, but are able to direct revolutionary times in positive directions. This takes leadership with imagination to see a new vision with which people can identify and collectively work towards. The revolutionary time we are living through is the impending ecological collapse and world bankruptcy, and so what is needed now is lovolutionary thought. When the modern system finally collapses, the power will again be in the streets. Our prayer now is that the collapse happens before the planetary damage is irreversible. In _Man in the New World_, K. G. Saiyidain writes, many distinguished thinkers of the East and West are of the view that the central problem of the modern age is to bring about the right relationship between Power and Vision--Power, which makes it possible for man [sic] to adopt effective means to achieve his ends and Vision which is the source of love, sympathy and the intuitive feeling of oneness of all mankind [sic] (69). Saiyidain notes that power without vision, which has been ruling the modernist world, "is destructive, leads to external and internal conflicts and deprives life of its moral foundations" (Saiyidain 1964, 69). The Neutopian Vision Visions of truly better ways of social organization are what our politicians definitely lack. U.S. president, George Bush, in his 1989 inaugural address asked us not to contemplate life under an alternative form of government. He spoke, "For the first time in this century--for the first time in perhaps all history--man does not have to invent a system by which to live. We don't have to talk late into the night about which form of government is better." Does President Bush really think that the liberal tradition's goals of home ownership, private property, and capitalist "democracy" are the best that humanity has to offer? What about our ecological problems, and the problems with the justice system? In the book _Environment and Utopia_, the authors Moos and Brownstein point out the need for utopian and environmentalist to come together. Both perspectives know that in order to save life on earth we need radical change. According to microbiologist Lynn Margulis, in an article entitled "Bacteria to the Future" in _Contact Magazine_, It's estimated that 99.9 percent of all species that have ever existed are now extinct. The idea that evolution has got to man and therefore it's going to stay with man because man is at the summit of evolution is totally inconsistent with all we know about other species. We'll either evolve into something else or we'll go extinct (Smith 1989 12). Environmental science works through the scientific method. It concentrates on objective phenomena, the ecology. Utopian thought arises from the imagination, the human ecology. It focuses on the social organization, values, and images of the future. Moos and Brownstein comment that the utopian "mission is to tempt mankind [sic] to test limits and to attempt new creative works" (Moos 1977, 268). The world's great prophets like Moses, Jesus, and Mohammed made such demands on us. Their spiritual mission was to create entirely new social structures, but thus far they, too, have failed which I think is due to the lack of a feminist perspective within their religious worldviews. The environmentalist can point out how and why our civilization is ecologically collapsing, but it is the utopian who is able to envision the way out of the world mess. They further observe that "the analytical tools of environmental science, or of any science, are ill-equipped to re-shape a civilization. A deeper awareness and understanding of human values, social processes, hopes, and desires are needed, and these are, of course, the stock in trade of the utopian" (Moos 1977, 268). Kenneth R. Schneider also subscribes to a utopian notion of the merging of scientist and humanist, Ecology is inherently a sphere of integrative knowledge. So is humanism. Both represent revolutions in thought precisely because they demand a new perception of knowledge itself. And it is the city, more than any other environment, institution, philosophy, or methodology, that can unite the eco- logical and humanistic foundation of civilization (Schneider 1979, 20). Utopia was originally spelled _eutopia_, meaning a good place. Utopians are the political magicians whose goal it is to create a "political ecological utopia." However, a new word is needed to express utopia. I use a word taken from John Lennon and Yoko Ono, neutopia, meaning a new good place. In _Man in the City of the Future_, edited by Richard Eells and Clarence Walton, it is stated that, "The dream of building a greater and nobler city is an essential element of all utopian schemes. Lewis Mumford noted the fact that all utopias, from Plato to Bellamy, have been expressed largely in terms of the city." Mumford said, "the first Utopia was a city itself" (271). A Holistic World View However, creating the good city has not become a serious topic for discussion and has been ignored by the economic, educational, and political powers running our fragmented, alienated world. In _The Elusive City_, Jonathan Barnett professes, The complexities of this subject are often lost in the divisions among scholarly disciplines or fall between the boundaries of different professions. Art historians tend to look at the work of individual artists or specific historical periods, and more often discuss buildings as isolated artifacts than as parts of cities. Urban historians give far less attention to the physical fabric of cities than they do to political events and social and economic patterns. Practitioners of architecture and other design professions have often looked to history only for the justification of a specific polemic or as a prelude to descriptions of their own work. City planning, as a relatively new profession, has sought to distance itself from architecture and landscape architecture, both to create a separate identity and for fear of appearing frivolous in the eyes of city officials by being overly concerned with aesthetic matters (1-2). Schneider concurs with Barnett that planners plan without a conception of an ideal city. Planning is accepted precisely because it fails to raise the critical, radical issues we are faced with today. Planners are not concerned with creating cities which are ecologically sound and socially creative. They are under the spell of maintaining the status quo which makes them impotent in solving the problem of modernity, the balance between vision and power. Max Weber saw that planning had become an arm of bureau- cracy, therefore he suggested we must look elsewhere for the leadership to manifest creative, ecological cities. Schneider writes, "Planning has not even approached a renaissance. It has inherited without essential questioning the dominant technological and economic traditions" (259). Where are the Social Healers? Imaging an ecological, humanistic city is central to finding solutions to world problems and inspiring us to greater aspirations. Schneider understands that the city is the highest creative work of humanity. Now, all art forms are slaves to the post-modernist city. With the reality of impending human extinction, art has become dehumanized as it becomes a mere commodity in the market-place city. The visionary artists are removed from their positions as vision givers and social healers. They too are trapped in the architectural madness. When our cities are chaotic growths of economic fragmentation, it is difficult to find the personal meaning needed in order to create an independent artistic voice. The economy forces one to conform to the status quo. Art which fails to address the issue of the great possibility of our race's extinction is dangerously deceptive lacking the truth of the art which either criticizes our dystopian situation or envisions a neutopian reality. Art is dying as the metropolis is slowly devouring the planet. It is time for the artists to not only create a new revolutionary symbolic language, but to theoretically adopt such character into their personalities. _In Modern Movements in Architecture_, Charles Jencks writes about what an architect who has seen through the false foundation governing our architecture should do, In that situation all the architect can do is clarify the situation theoretically, design dissenting buildings for the system, provide alternative models and wait for the propitious moment. Le Corbusier ended his polemic with the alternative "Architecture or Revolution. Revolution can be avoided." But today if we are to have a credible architecture, it must be supported by a popular revolution that ends in a creditable public realm, the council system. _Architecture and Revolution_ (380). We already have the blueprints to create a solar Jerusalem, however, we should return to the first paragraph of this paper quoting Willis Harman: we need to change our value system, our way of thinking. The great architect of megastructural designs, Paolo Soleri, said to me in Amherst that what is needed is a genius who can create a political formula which can liberate the world from the destructive development while steering us in a new direction towards the miniaturization of the city, which is exactly what his megastructural designs propose. Of course, these megastructured cities will take a considerable amount of time to engineer, but what is important now is to move humankind into the synergetic direction away from the market-place city towards the city of love. Constantinas A. Doxiadis writes, "To implement the plan we do not need to implement it today; what we need today is a decision to implement it, but it will take years, decades, maybe centuries to implement the whole plan" (Eells 1968, 187). Neutopia vs. the Global Corporations To implement such a Neutopian plan calls for a global movement. In _The Quest for Utopia_, Glenn Negley writes, "With the necessity in the present day for the utopist to speculate in terms of nothing less than world organization, it seems likely that the future history of utopian thought will manifest a new pattern, with emphasis on the political as the principle upon which utopia is to be organized" (577). In other words, a Neutopian plan must be a world plan based on a new form of management radically different from the management plans of the social architects of today, the global corporations. For the global corporations are the ones planning the world's future with the image of the "global shopping mall" as their plan of development. Worldwide profit maximization is their primary goal. Through mass media and advertising they have globalized their market-place ideology: global corporations have the key to happiness, in the form of consumer products. In _Global Reach: the Power of the Multinational Corporations_, authors Richard J. Barnett and Ronald E. Muller ask, "Is the global corporation mankind's [sic] best hope for producing and distributing the riches of the earth, as the World Managers contend--or, as their critics argue, is their vaunted rational integrated world economy a recipe for a new stage in authoritarian politics, an international class war of huge proportions, and ultimately, ecological suicide?" (25) Here we have it. We live in a world dominated by the old imperialist wealth which has finally reached its ancient ambition of world conquest, gaining its world empire not through the military might of the nation-states, but through the transnational market-place and consumer culture. The movie industry now no longer targets national or ethnic audiences for their films, but makes films which appeal to the pop global market. It is difficult to think of a popular movement strong enough to stop the world totalitarianism we face as the corporations continue to plunder the planet. Time for Millenarian Activity As the 21st Century approaches, one possibility for radical social change calls for worldwide millenarian activity. It is a movement in which humankind culturally evolves into a new species by living with nature and technology in humanistic ways to produce a culture where the prestige/power system is based on individual genius, talent, and skill. The prophetic task is to create an economy where we live to express our gifts which benefit humanity, rather than make money as a means to material ends. It is a system where creativity, images of the future, and powers of the mind are the measures of worth and respect. It is a solar civilization where the arts, sciences, and humanities work in harmonious ways for the betterment of life in beautiful arcologies. It is a world/city designed without the automobile and designed with communal kitchens which finally liberate us from private domestic servitude of the individual house. It is an educational movement which exposes the falsehoods and miseries of the American dream of private property and home ownership by evolving our image of home to extend to the planet as seen from Outer Space. Our home is the planet; our creatrix is the universe. It is a movement where art is no longer a commodity of the market-place city, but is recognized as the spiritual-in-the material, as symbolic of our cosmic roots. It is an architectural plan which inspires us to seek the knowledge within ourselves. It is a world where animals reclaim the wilderness areas they need in order to survive. It is a movement which acknowledges and manages for the first time in history, a truly creative global culture based on our common humanity and common cosmology: the earth, water, air, and fire. It is the "politics of planet" where the Gaian consciousness is born. It is a planet where our leaders find themselves by tapping into the cosmic energy which generates the wisdom to fulfill our universal destiny. It is a place where our obligations lie not only with our biological families, but with our entire species. It is a planet where merit, not inheritance, is the determinant of power. It is a world/city where the ministers of the future are the Neutopian thinkers, guiding us to long-term peace projects and the extraterrestrial frontier. Some aspects of the New Age--natural foods, world peace, world federalists, intentional community, Gaian, ecology/green movements--have characteristics of millenarian activities. They can see we need to redirect military money into social programs which would cause a radical change in the world economy. They are holistic in that they see that we are on board Spaceship Earth and need to manage our resources fairly. Some see the need for creating a world government and a new educational system which allows for individual expression. However, these movements have failed to change our daily habits and lifestyles. The New Agers ironically, are some of the ones who are building expensive passive solar, greenhouse housing in the woodlands. The New Age movement has not focused on the role of the city in global transformation. Schneider writes, "The creation of the city is possibly the most revolutionary of all human revolutions." Schneider thinks that the back to the earth movement is the worst ecology of all. He writes, As a model for any large population, however, the back-to-earth movement can do little more than create vast belts of Appalachia with hard-rock poverty and acute human deprivation. The American population has grown by nearly one hundred million persons since our rural population hit its peak on 6.5 million farms in 1935. It is difficult to imagine any worthy enlightenment or "prosperity" occurring with a high rural population density. A very small population might perhaps live comfortably on the fringes of wealthy society. A large population decidedly cannot (293). Another serious problem with the New Age movement is a lack of responding to leadership. In many cases leadership is discouraged and not given power to effectively lead. The rule in many of these groups is that decisions must be made by consensus, rather than by personal revelations, even though creative visions come through the individual, not the group. Of course, the individual ideas are enhanced and greatly enriched by group involvement and brainstorming, but primarily the group is composed of individuals. New Age groups that I have experienced are skeptical of visionary leadership. Millenarian activities are concerned with the ordering and re-ordering of power. They are not only political movements but spiritual in nature, a new religion in the making. These activities will break down the barriers of class and status and create a new value system resulting in a just political-economic framework. These activities represent a new synthesis, creating political power through a new vision. This in turn has a revolutionary effect on the economical structure. Millenarian activities create new unities and social obligations. These movements envision "a new earth in which heaven is more brightly mirrored" (Burridge 1969, 165). Millenarian movements are holistic. They are a "psycho- logical reaction to cultural inadequacy." They oppose the household, bureaucracy, tradition, rational management, and routines of the workaday life (Burridge 1969, 165). Millenarians want to change everything creating an evolved human being. Kenelm Burridge states that millenarian activities occur as historical events over a relatively short time; they involve changes in social relations, they tend to predicate changes in social organization as well as in what some think of as social structure. Beyond their intrinsic human interest, that is, millenarian activities constitute an acute theoretical challenge. They invite a statement through which particular actions and rationalizations may be given a more general validity" (2). The Role of the Prophetess/Prophet Millenarian movements may be led by a charismatic prophetess, prophet, leader, hera, hero, intellectual, a group or band of people. Charismatic leaders in the past have been founders of world religions, prophets, military and political heroes. According to Max Weber charismatic leaders are self-appointed, leading people in times of "crisis in which the basic values, institutions, and legitimacy of society are in question" (29). Charismatic leaders organize and articulate new assumptions and renew meaning for existence. Even though charisma is direct and interpersonal, the leader is not the important factor, the new assumptions and ideas are, for it is the message rather than the leader which creates charismatic qualities. Charisma is social, "contingent upon a _shared belief_ on the part of both leader and followers in the genuineness of the leaders's charismatic possession" (Glassman 1986, 134). In other words, people follow charismatic vision because of their faith in extraordinary qualities. In Joseph Bensman and Michael Givant essay's "Charisma and Modernity," they quote Max Weber, "Charismatic belief revolutionizes men [sic] "from within" and shapes material and social conditions according to its revolutionary will" (Glassman 1986, 134). In an article entitled, "Scientific Revolution and the Evolution of Consciousness," Robert Artigiani writes, "Evolutionary social analysis, can, therefore, respect individual creative arts" (Laszol 1988, 242). He continues, Successive iterations lead the society to a bifurcation point where it must either remap its world with new symbols programming new behaviors or perish. At that moment, a society has ceased to be an autopoetic system. It is acquiring new information about an environment beyond its original boundaries. But, in the absence of a suitable cognitive map, that information cannot be processed. It appears to describe a world of random chaos. Evolution occurs when, amidst the chaos of incomprehensible experience, some new set of symbols is environmentally amplified. In this way, order emerges out of chaos, the "noise" of creative individual mappings of new experiences becoming the eventual source of societal order. Creative acts produce symbols able to alter collective cognitive maps and nucleate new social structures (250). Artigiani says that "the news of the shift is announced by "nucleations," in human terms, by charismatic leaders who crystallize new ideas." Prophetesses and prophets are spoken through, that is, they do not act alone, but act in accordance to the revelations they receive from the divine, or supernatural powers, a power beyond the control of people. Weber believed that true charismatic leaders do not worry about their image, for they know who they are and their power comes from beyond themselves. They _are_ the natural leaders, the Gaian wizards who have a clear direction on which vision is cosmic and true to love. These extraordinary individuals work like funnels to the next millenarian, prophetesses and prophets to the New Age who gain public recognition to promote the new wave of ideas and values, whose work and life become treasured, canonized, immortalized, institutionalized, and adopted not in the form as dogma but as examples of cosmic individualists. It is in times of extreme crisis when leadership can flourish out of a millenarian movement. William H. Swatos, Jr., writes, "the extraordinary nature of the _times_ calls forth a charismatic _authority structure_" (Glassman 1986, 134). He quotes S. N. Eisenstadt in defining charisma as the gift of grace, i.e., "the specifically creative revolutionary force of history," (134) and, as this paper has already discussed, the charismatic authority that humanity needs to successfully survive into the 21th Century is the utopian genius and juno, leaders of human conduct, as well as the creatresses and creators of new symbols. They symbolize the new person by inaugurating a new power/prestige system based on how people will be measured, how integrity will be earned, and how redemption is gained. Therefore, charisma generates a new moral order by creating the social myth that guides the revolution. In an essay entitled "The Role of the Intellectual in Revolutionary Institutions," William C. Martin points out that the "intellectual constructs the world-view of the new society,...undermines the legitimacy of the old society, prepares the strategy of revolutionary change, and participates in the mobilization of the revolutionary forces" (Mohan 1987, 73). Martin goes on to say that in the industrial core-states within the world economy it will be increasingly difficult for intellectuals to achieve an autonomous, critical, and independent voice, and so, they will have to function as part of organizational entities. The organizations will provide a comfortable niche for the intellectual. In turn, the intellectual will produce ideologies and symbols legitimatizing the powerful organizations. Martin writes, "Knowledge will be generated, maintained, transmitted, and extinguished by the large and powerful organizations" (72). The intellectual then becomes the servant of the existing corporate world-system which neutralizes her/his revolutionary personality. Martin notes that there are two direct consequences of this development. The first being that, in complex organizational societies, revolution will cease to exist since radical social movements cannot develop inside or outside these organizations. The second consequence is that the intellectual will feel increasingly alienated from not having a meaningful connection with the powerful organizations. The revolutionary seems to be in a "Catch 22," trapped in the chaos of the megalopolis with no way out as it continues to expand its ugly roads everywhere, even into Outer Space. Science has still not discovered all the mysteries of the universe, and maybe it will be this rare phenomenon of charisma which will save the planet from its shadow. It seems like an impossible dream to think that the global corporations and the megalopolis can be transformed into a Neutopian world city design; nevertheless, inventiveness is breaking through impossibilities. Summary In this chapter we have discussed the urgent need for a new alternative way of thinking and architectural design to stop the present omnicide of the planet which has resulted from the rationalist thinking of global capitalism. We have seen how the market-place has promoted the single-family private house as the place to live the happy life which feminists have clearly proven not to be the case. Trapped in the chaos of the modern megalopolis and the suburban sprawl, intellectuals must become the leaders of a millennium movement in order to change the value-system of the global culture back to nourishing the forces of creativity and love. In the Neutopian world view, love is as real as wheat. In the next chapter, we shall further explore the divisions of the spacial environment so that we can begin to find the way to break through to a new social reality.