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Subject: The Lucidity Institute FAQ

All Follow-Up: Re: The Lucidity Institute FAQ
Date: 4 Jan 1998 21:20:02 -0800

   Version 2.05, January 30, 1996
   (c) The Lucidity Institute (info@lucidity.com)
   This FAQ is a brief introduction to lucid dreaming--what it is, what
   it takes to do it, and what can be done with it. Please note that this
   is not the full extent of knowledge available in this area. References
   to more comprehensive sources are given below. If you are serious
   about learning to have lucid dreams yourself, then consider taking
   advantage of the excellent resources.
   The goals of the Lucidity Institute are to make lucid dreaming known
   to the public and accessible to anyone interested, to support research
   on lucid dreaming and other states of consciousness, and to study
   potential applications of lucid dreaming. We have a membership society
   with a quarterly newsletter (NightLight) and a product catalog to keep
   interested people informed of the latest developments, and to enroll
   them in participating in ongoing research. You are invited to get
   involved! Email comments and inquiries to info@lucidity.com.
   Lucid dreaming is dreaming while knowing that you are dreaming. The
   term was coined by Frederik van Eeden (see Green, 1968), using the
   word "lucid" in the sense of mental clarity. Lucidity usually begins
   in the midst of a dream, when the dreamer realizes that the experience
   is not occurring in physical reality, but is a dream. Often this
   realization is triggered by the dreamer noticing some impossible or
   unlikely occurrence in the dream, such as meeting a person who is
   dead, or flying with or without wings. Sometimes people become lucid
   without noticing any particular clue in the dream; they just suddenly
   realize they are in a dream. A minority of lucid dreams (according to
   the research of LaBerge and colleagues, about 10 percent) are the
   result of returning to REM sleep directly from an awakening with
   unbroken reflective consciousness.
   The basic definition of lucid dreaming requires nothing more than
   becoming aware that you are dreaming. However, the quality of lucidity
   varies greatly. When lucidity is at a high level, you are aware that
   everything experienced in the dream is occurring in your mind, that
   there is no real danger, and that you are asleep in bed and will
   awaken shortly. With low-level lucidity you may be aware to a certain
   extent that you are dreaming, perhaps enough to fly, or alter what you
   are doing, but not enough to realize that the people are dream
   representations, or that you can suffer no physical damage, or that
   you are actually in bed.
   Lucidity and control in dreams are not the same thing. It is possible
   to be lucid and have little control over dream content, and
   conversely, to have a great deal of control without being explicitly
   aware that you are dreaming. Nonetheless, becoming lucid in a dream is
   likely to increase your deliberate influence over the course of
   events. Once you know you are dreaming, you are likely to choose some
   activity that is only possible in dreams. You always have the choice
   of how much control you want to exert, and what kind. For example, you
   could continue with whatever you were doing when you became lucid,
   with the added knowledge that you are dreaming. Or you could try to
   change everything--the dream scene, yourself, other dream characters,
   etc. It is not always possible to perform "magic" in dreams, like
   changing one object into another or transforming scenes. A dreamer's
   ability to succeed at this seems to depend a lot on the dreamer's
   confidence. If you believe that you cannot do something in a dream,
   you will probably not be able to.
   On the other hand, the easiest (and perhaps wisest) kind of control to
   exert in a dream is control over your own behavior. This comes in
   especially handy in nightmares. If you become lucid in a bad dream,
   you could try to do magic to escape the situation, but many times this
   does not work very well. It is generally much more effective, and
   better for you psychologically, to recognize that, because you are
   dreaming, nothing can harm you. Your fear is real, but the danger is
   not. Changing attitude in this way usually defuses the dream situation
   and transforms it into something positive.
   Lucid dreams usually happen during REM sleep. Sleep is not a uniform
   state, but is characterized by a series of stages (1, 2, 3, and 4, and
   REM) distinguished by certain physiological markers. REM sleep, stands
   for "Rapid Eye Movement" sleep, and is pronounced to rhyme with
   "them", not "R. E. M." Stages 1 through 4 are often lumped together
   under the label non-REM (NREM) sleep. Stages 3 and 4 are both referred
   to as "delta" sleep, for the large, low frequency brain waves evident
   in these stages. Although this is certainly a gross oversimplification
   of the complexity of the physiological and mental events in sleep,
   research has demonstrated that most vivid dreaming occurs in REM
   sleep. It is characterized by an active brain, with low amplitude
   mixed frequency brain waves, suppression of skeletal muscle tone,
   bursts of rapid eye movements, and occasional tiny muscular twitches.
   The sleep stages cycle throughout a night. The first REM period
   normally happens after a period of delta sleep, approximately 90
   minutes after sleep onset, and lasts from about 5 to 20 minutes. REM
   periods occur roughly every 90 minutes throughout the night, with
   later REM periods occurring at shorter intervals and often being
   longer, sometimes up to an hour in length. Much more REM sleep occurs
   in the second half of the night than in the first.
   How do we know that lucid dreaming happens in REM sleep? Dr. Stephen
   LaBerge and his colleagues at Stanford University proved this with
   deliberate eye movement signals given in by lucid dreamers during REM
   sleep. Most of the muscles of the body are paralyzed in REM sleep to
   prevent us from acting out our dreams. However, because the eyes are
   not paralyzed, if you deliberately move your "dream" eyes in a dream,
   your physical eyes move also. LaBerge's subjects slept in the
   laboratory, while the standard measures of sleep physiology
   (brainwaves, muscle tone and eye movements) were recorded. As soon as
   they became lucid in a dream, they moved their eyes in large sweeping
   motions left-right-left-right, as far as possible. This left an
   unmistakable marker on the physiological record of the eye movements.
   Analysis of the records showed that in every case, the eye movements
   marking the times when the subjects realized they were dreaming
   occurred in the middle of unambiguous REM sleep. LaBerge has done
   several experiments on lucid dreaming using the eyemovement signaling
   method, demonstrating interesting connections between dreamed actions
   and physiological responses. Some are described in his books (see
   Upon hearing about lucid dreaming for the first time, people often
   ask, "Why should I want to have lucid dreams? What are they good for?"
   If you consider that in dreams, if you know you are dreaming, you are
   in principle free to do anything, restricted only by your ability to
   imagine and conceive, not by laws of physics or society, then the
   answer to these questions is either extremely simple (Anything!) or
   extraordinarily complex (Everything!). It is easier to provide a
   sample of what some people have done with lucid dreaming than to give
   a definitive answer of its potential uses.
   The first thing that attracts people to lucid dreaming is often the
   potential for adventure and fantasy fulfillment. Flying is a favorite
   lucid dream delight, as is sex. Many people have said that their first
   lucid dream was the most wonderful experience of their lives. A large
   part of the extraordinary pleasure of lucid dreaming comes from the
   exhilarating feeling of utter freedom that accompanies the realization
   that you are in a dream, where there will be no social or physical
   consequences of your actions.
   Unfortunately for many people, instead of providing an outlet for
   unlimited fantasy and delight, dreams can be dreaded episodes of
   limitless terror. As is discussed in the books Lucid Dreaming
   (LaBerge, 1985) and Exploring the World of Lucid Dreaming (EWLD)
   (LaBerge & Rheingold, 1990), lucid dreaming may well be the basis of
   the most effective therapy for nightmares. If you know you are
   dreaming, it is a simple logical step to realizing that nothing in
   your current experience, however unpleasant, can cause you physical
   harm. There is no need to run from or fight with dream monsters. In
   fact, it is often pointless to try because you have conceived the
   horror in your mind, and it can pursue you wherever you dream yourself
   to be. The only way to really "escape" is to end your fear; as long as
   you fear your dream, it is likely to return. (For a discussion of
   reasons for recurrent nightmares, see p. 245 of EWLD.) The fear you
   feel in a nightmare is completely real; it is the danger that is not.
   Unreasonable fear can be defused by facing up to the source, or going
   through with the frightening activity, so that you observe that no
   harm comes to you. In a nightmare, this act of courage can take any
   form that involves facing the "threat" rather than avoiding it. For
   example, one young man dreamt of being pursued by a lion. When he had
   no place left to run, he realized he was dreaming and called to the
   lion to come on and get him. The challenge turned into a playful
   wrestling match, and the lion became a sexy woman (NightLight 1.4,
   1989, p. 13). Monsters often transform into benign creatures, friends,
   or empty shells (see Saint-Denys, 1867/1982) when courageously
   confronted in lucid dreams. This is an extremely empowering
   experience. It teaches you in a very visceral manner that you can
   conquer fear and become stronger thereby.
   Lucid dreaming can also help people achieve goals in their waking
   lives. EWLD contains many examples of ways that individuals have used
   lucid dreams to prepare for some aspect of their waking activities.
   Some of these applications include: rehearsal (trying out new
   behaviors, or practicing them, and honing athletic skills), creative
   problem solving, artistic inspiration, overcoming sexual and social
   problems, coming to terms with the loss of loved ones, and physical
   healing. If the possibility of accelerated physical healing, suggested
   by anecdotes from lucid dreamers, is born out by research, it would
   become a tremendously important reason for developing lucid dreaming
   The ability to have lucid dreams may be within the reach of most human
   beings. Research on individual differences has not turned up any
   factors of personality or cognitive ability that substantially predict
   lucid dreaming frequency. So far, the only strong predictor of
   frequent lucid dreaming is high dream recall. This is good news for
   would-be lucid dreamers, because it is fairly easy to increase dream
   recall (more below).
   One question frequently asked about learning lucid dreaming is: How
   long does it take? The answer, or course, is that it varies depending
   on the individual. How well does the person recall dreams? How much
   time is available for practicing mental exercises? Does the person use
   a lucid dream induction device? Does the person practice diligently?
   Is the person's critical thinking well developed? And so on. Case
   histories may provide a more tangible picture of the process of
   learning lucid dreaming. Dr. LaBerge increased his frequency of lucid
   dreaming from about one per month to up to four a night (at which
   point he could have lucid dreams on demand) over the course of three
   years. He was studying lucid dreaming for his doctoral dissertation
   and therefore needed to learn to have them on demand as quickly as
   possible. On the other hand, he had to invent techniques for improving
   lucid dreaming skills. Thus, people starting now, although they may
   not be as strongly motivated as LaBerge, have the advantage of
   well-developed techniques, complete training programs, and electronic
   biofeedback aids that have been created in the 16 years since LaBerge
   began his studies.
   Lynne Levitan, staff writer for NightLight, describes her experiences
   with learning lucid dreaming as follows:
     "I first heard of lucid dreaming in April of 1982, when I took a
     course from Dr. LaBerge at Stanford University. I had had the
     experience many years before and was very interested to learn to do
     it again, as well as to get involved in the research. First I had to
     develop my dream recall, because at the time I only remembered two
     or three dreams per week. In a couple of months I was recalling 3 to
     4 or more per night, and in July (about three months after starting)
     I had my first lucid dream since adolescence. I worked at it on and
     off for the next four years (not sleeping much as a student) and
     reached the level of 3 to 4 lucid dreams per week. Along the way, I
     tested several prototypes of the DreamLight lucid dream induction
     device and it clearly helped me become more proficient at realizing
     when I was dreaming. In the first two years we were developing the
     DreamLight, I had lucid dreams on half of the nights I used one of
     these devices, compared to once a week or less without. In
     considering how long it took me to get really good at lucid
     dreaming, note that I did not have the benefit of the thoroughly
     studied and explained techniques now available either, because the
     research had not yet been done nor the material written. Therefore,
     people now should be able to accomplish the same learning in far
     less time, of course, given sufficient motivation."
   As mentioned above, the most important prerequisite for learning lucid
   dreaming is excellent dream recall. There are probably two reasons for
   this. One is that if you do not remember your dreams, you are unable
   to study them to discover what about them could help you realize that
   you are not awake. Another is that you might have lucid dreams without
   knowing it, because you do not remember them.
   The procedure for improving your dream recall is fully detailed in
   EWLD, and A Course in Lucid Dreaming (see below) as well as many
   other books on dreams. The core exercise is keeping a dream journal,
   and writing down everything you recall about your dreams, no matter
   how fragmentary. You must not wait until morning to take notes on
   dreams recalled in the middle of the night because, no matter how
   clear they are at the time, they are apt to disappear entirely from
   your memory by the time you get up in the morning. You also should
   write them down first thing in the morning, before you even think
   about anything else. In A Course in Lucid Dreaming we advise that
   people build their dream recall to at least one per night before
   proceeding onto lucid dream induction techniques.
   Another dream-recall related exercise introduced in EWLD, and further
   developed in A Course in Lucid Dreaming is identifying "dreamsigns."
   This is a word coined by LaBerge referring to elements of dreams that
   indicate that you are dreaming. (Examples: miraculous flight, purple
   cats, malfunctioning devices, and meeting deceased people.) By
   studying your dreams you can become familiar with your own personal
   dreamsigns and set your mind to recognize them and become lucid in
   future dreams. The COURSE also provides exercises for practicing
   noticing dreamsigns while you are awake, so that the skill carries
   over into your dreams. This exercise also relates to lucid dream
   induction devices, which give sensory cues--special,
   artificially-produced dreamsigns--while you are dreaming. To succeed
   at recognizing these cues, you need to practice looking for them and
   recognizing them while you are awake (more below).
   This is a good technique for beginners. Assign yourself several times
   a day to perform the following exercise. Also do it anytime you think
   of it, especially when something odd occurs, or when you are reminded
   of dreams. It helps to choose specific occasions like: when I see my
   face in the mirror, when I look at my watch, when I arrive at work or
   home, when I pick up my lucid dream induction device or the
   NightLight. The more frequently and thoroughly you practice this
   technique, the better it will work.
    1. Carry some text with you or wear a digital watch throughout the
       day. To do a reality test, read the words or the numbers on the
       watch. Then, look away and look back, observing the letters or
       numbers to see if they change. Try to make them change while
       watching them. If they do change, or are not normal, or do not
       make sense, then you are most probably dreaming. Enjoy! If the
       characters are normal, stable, and sensible, then you probably
       aren't dreaming. Go on to step 2.
    2. If you are sure you are awake, then say to yourself, "I may not be
       dreaming now, but if I were, what would it be like?" Visualize as
       vividly as possible that you are dreaming. Intently imagine that
       what you are seeing, hearing, smelling, feeling is all a dream.
       Imagine instabilities in your environment, words changing, scenes
       transforming, perhaps you floating off the ground. Create in
       yourself the feeling that you are in a dream. Holding that
       feeling, go on to step 3.
    3. Pick something you would like to do in your next lucid dream,
       perhaps flying, talking to particular dream characters, or just
       exploring the dream world. Continue to imagine that you are
       dreaming now, and that you try out the thing you plan to do in
       your next lucid dream.
   Developed by LaBerge and used by him to induce lucid dreams at will
   during his Ph.D. study, MILD is practiced during the night. (Modified
   from EWLD, p. 78)
    1. Setup dream recall.
       Set your mind to awaken from dreams and recall them. When you
       awaken from a dream, recall it as completely as you can.
    2. Focus your intent.
       While returning to sleep, concentrate single-mindedly on your
       intention to remember to recognize that you're dreaming. Tell
       yourself: "Next time I'm dreaming, I want to remember I'm
       dreaming." Try to feel that you really mean it. Focus your
       thoughts on this idea alone. If you find yourself thinking about
       anything else, let it go and bring your mind back to your
       intention to remember.
    3. See yourself becoming lucid.
       At the same time, imagine that you are back in the dream you just
       woke from (or another one you have had recently if you didn't
       remember a dream on awakening), but this time you recognize that
       it is a dream. Look for a dreamsign--something in the dream that
       demonstrates plainly that it is a dream (see NightLight 1.3 & 1.4
       for more about dreamsigns). When you see it say to yourself: "I'm
       dreaming!" and continue your fantasy. Imagine yourself carrying
       out your plans for your next lucid dream. For example, if you want
       to fly in your lucid dream, imagine yourself flying when you come
       to the point in your fantasy that you "realize" you are dreaming.
    4. Repeat until your intention is set.
       Repeat steps 2 and 3 until your intention is set; then let
       yourself fall asleep. If, while falling asleep, you find yourself
       thinking of anything else, repeat the procedure so that the last
       thing in your mind before falling asleep is your intention to
       remember to recognize the next time you are dreaming.
   The Lucidity Institute offers several electronic devices that help
   people achieve lucid dreams. They were developed through laboratory
   research at Stanford University by LaBerge, Levitan, and others. The
   basic principle behind all of these devices is as follows: The primary
   task confronting someone who wishes to have a lucid dream is to
   remember that intention while in a dream. We often remember to do
   things while awake through reminders: notes, strings around fingers,
   alarms, and so on. However, such reminders are of little use in
   dreams, although there are other kinds of reminders that are in fact
   helpful. The observation that some sensory events are occasionally
   incorporated into ongoing dreams (like your clock radio or the
   neighbor's saw appearing disguised in your dream rather than awakening
   you) led to the idea of using a particular sensory stimulus as a cue
   to a dreamer to become lucid. For example, a tape recording of a voice
   saying "You're dreaming" played while a person is in REM sleep will
   sometimes come through into the dream and remind the person to become
   lucid. In our research we settled on using flashing lights as a
   lucidity cue, because they had less tendency to awaken people than
   sound and were easy to apply. The DreamLight and NovaDreamer devices
   also have a sound cue option, which is useful for people who sleep
   more deeply.
   The DreamLight and NovaDreamer both work by giving users flashing
   light cues when they are dreaming. Users work with their devices to
   find an intensity and length of cue that enters their dreams without
   awakening them. In addition, device users should practice mental
   exercises while awake for the best preparation for recognizing the
   light cues when they appear in dreams. The devices are based around a
   soft, comfortable sleep mask, which contains the flashing lights. The
   DreamLight and NovaDreamer detect the rapid eye movements of REM
   sleep, when the wearer is likely to be dreaming, and give cues when
   the level of eye movement activity is high enough.
   These lucid dream induction devices offer a second method of lucid
   dream stimulation. This method arose out of the discovery that while
   sleeping with the DreamLight, people frequently dreamed that they
   awakened wearing the device, and pressed the button on the front of
   the mask to start the "delay," a feature that disables cues while you
   are drifting off to sleep. Ordinarily, the button would cause a beep
   to tell you that you had successfully pressed it. However, people were
   reporting that the button was not working in the middle of the night.
   Actually, they were dreaming that they were awakening and pressing the
   button, and the button did not work because it was a dream version of
   the DreamLight. Dream versions of devices are notorious for not
   working normally. Once people were advised that failure of the button
   in the middle of the night was a sign that they were probably
   dreaming, they were able to use this "dreamsign" reliably to become
   lucid during "false awakenings" with the DreamLight. This "reality
   test" button turned out to be so useful that it became an important
   part of all the lucid dream induction devices developed by the
   Lucidity Institute. Research suggests that about half of the lucid
   dreams stimulated by the devices result from using the button for
   reality tests.
   The Lucidity Institute's lucid dream induction devices are designed to
   help people achieve lucidity by giving them cues while they are
   dreaming and a reliable means of testing their state of consciousness.
   They do not *make* people have lucid dreams any more than an exercise
   machine makes people have muscles. In both cases the goal, muscles or
   lucid dreams, result from practice. The machines just make it easier
   to get the desired results. Several factors enter into success with
   one of these devices. One is how well the device (or in the case of
   the DreamLink, the user) catches REM sleep with the sensory cues.
   Another is how reliably the cues enter into the dream without
   awakening the sleeper. A third factor is how well the device user does
   at correctly recognizing cues in dreams and becoming lucid. Finally,
   the user's commitment to performing reality tests every time upon
   waking up wearing the device has a lot to do with success. All four of
   these factors are, to some extent, controllable by the device user:
   adjustment of eye movement sensitivity to catch REM sleep, selecting a
   cue that enters dreams without causing awakenings, mental preparation
   to recognize cues in dreams, and resolution to do reality tests.
   Therefore, it is difficult to obtain a truly representative
   measurement of the effectiveness of the devices. Nonetheless, research
   with various versions of the DreamLight have shown that it definitely
   helps people have more frequent lucid dreams.
   The most recent study was done with the current model of the
   DreamLight. A complete write-up of the experiment is in NightLight
   5.3. In brief, fourteen people who were well-versed in DreamLight use
   compared two conditions. They believed they were trying two different
   types of cues. However, in fact in one condition they received no cues
   at all, as a sort of "placebo" condition. It was possible for the
   subjects to not know they were not getting any cues, because the
   DreamLight generally does not give cues when the wearer is awake (the
   result of the body movement sensor). Thus, the study examined how much
   the DreamLight's light cues contributed to the achievement of lucid
   dreams. Nights on which the DreamLight gave cues were called "CUED"
   and no-cue nights were called "PLACEBO".
   Eleven of the 14 subjects reported at least one lucid dream during the
   study. Eight of the 11 (73%) had more lucid dreams on CUED nights, two
   (18%) had equal numbers, and only one (9%) had more on the PLACEBO
   nights. The average number of lucid dreams per person in the CUED
   nights was 0.30 (one lucid dream per 3 nights) versus 0.09 for PLACEBO
   nights (one lucid dream every 11 nights), a statistically significant
   nearly three-fold increase in lucid dreaming frequency. Clearly, the
   DreamLight cues help people to become lucid. Subjects reported about
   nine times more cue incorporations on CUED than on PLACEBO nights
   (CUED: 73 total, 0.90 per night average; PLACEBO: 9 total, 0.11 per
   night average). Dream recall was also higher on CUED nights; subjects
   recalled an average of 3.2 dreams per night in the CUED condition,
   versus 2.6 per night in the PLACEBO condition.
   An earlier study with a different version of the DreamLight showed a
   five-fold increase in lucid dreaming frequency when people used the
   Mnemonic Induction of Lucid Dreaming (MILD) mental technique in
   conjunction with the device, compared with using no device and no
   mental technique. Using the device without mental techniques worked
   about as well as just using the mental technique, which was in both
   cases an improvement over using nothing.
   In summary, at this stage the lucid dream induction devices can
   definitely help people learn to have more lucid dreams, or to have
   lucid dreams in the first place. Important factors contributing to
   success are good dream recall (and the DreamLight and NovaDreamer also
   can be used to boost dream recall), diligent mental preparation by the
   user, and careful adjustment of the device by the user to fit
   individual needs for cueing and REM detection. No device yet exists
   that will make a person have a lucid dream.
   At first, beginners may have difficulty remaining in the dream after
   they become lucid. This obstacle may prevent many people from
   realizing the value of lucid dreaming, because they have not
   experienced more than the flash of knowing they are dreaming, followed
   by immediate awakening. Two simple techniques can help you overcome
   this problem. The first is to remain calm in the dream. Becoming lucid
   is exciting, but expressing the excitement can awaken you. Suppress
   your feeling somewhat and turn your attention to the dream. If the
   dream shows signs of ending, such as a loss of detail, vividness and
   apparent reality of the imagery, "spinning" can help bring the dream
   back. As soon as the dream starts to fade, before you feel your
   physical body in bed, spin your dream body like a top. That is, twirl
   around like a child trying to get dizzy (you don't get dizzy during
   dream spinning because your physical body is not spinning around).
   Remind yourself, "The next scene will be a dream." When you stop
   spinning, if it is not obvious that you are dreaming, do a reality
   test. Even if you think you are awake, you may be surprised to find
   that you are still dreaming!
   Over the past decade, exercises, techniques and training materials
   have been developed and refined to the point where most anyone should
   be able to learn to have more lucid dreams if they are willing to give
   it some time and effort. The Lucidity Institute offers lucid dreaming
   training through several modalities. To start, most bookstores carry
   (or can easily get) the book Exploring the World of Lucid Dreaming by
   LaBerge and Rheingold (Ballantine, 1990), or you can order it from the
   Lucidity Institute. It presents a stepby -step training program with
   exercises and an introduction to the various possible applications of
   lucid dreaming. The basic structure in this book is greatly expanded
   and augmented by the Lucidity Institute's workbook A Course in Lucid
   Dreaming. The course is five units, taking a minimum of 4 months to
   complete, and it guides you through completing a series of progressive
   exercises to build up your lucid dreaming ability. It uses EWLD as a
   An intensive overview of lucid dreaming techniques is presented at
   Lucidity Institute Lucid Dreaming Training Programs. These workshops
   are often offered as a package with the purchase of a Lucidity
   Institute lucid dream induction device (DreamLight or NovaDreamer). So
   far, most of the Training Programs have been held in California, but
   the Lucidity Institute will give one wherever there is enough
   interest. Dr. LaBerge also gives weekend seminars at the Esalen
   Institute in Big Sur, California about once a year, as well as
   occasional lectures and workshops at other venues. To find out about
   upcoming events, contact the Lucidity Institute (via Email at
   info@lucidity.com or telephone at +1-650-321-9969).
   This is a selection of some recommended books and tapes on lucid
   dreaming. The titles marked with an asterisk (*) are available from
   the Lucidity Institute.
   *LUCID DREAMING, by Stephen LaBerge, Ph.D., (Ballantine, 1986) This is
   the seminal work that first brought lucid dreaming to the attention of
   the general public and legitimized it as a valuable field of
   scientific inquiry. It is still the best general reference on lucid
   dreaming, and a pleasure to read. The phenomenon of lucid dreaming is
   explored from many angles, beginning with the history of the practice
   in human cultures. LaBerge describes the early days of the scientific
   research and tells the story of his successful challenge of the
   established school of thought in sleep research, which held that
   awareness while dreaming was impossible. He discusses many methods of
   lucid dream induction, including the way he taught himself to have
   lucid dreams several times in one night. Other topics covered include:
   applications of lucid dreaming, the relationship of lucid dreaming to
   out-of-body and near-death experiences, and the possibility of lucid
   dreaming serving as a gateway or stepping stone on the path to
   spiritual enlightenment.
   Howard Rheingold (Ballantine, 1990) A practical guide for lucid
   dreamers. The first half of the book establishes a basic understanding
   of sleep and dreams, followed by a progressive series of exercises for
   developing lucid dreaming skills. These include cataloging
   "dreamsigns," your personal landmarks that tell you when you are
   dreaming, the ReflectionIntention and MILD techniques for becoming
   lucid within the dream and methods of falling asleep consciously based
   on ancient Tibetan Yoga practices. After presenting the lucid dream
   induction techniques, Dr. LaBerge explains his understanding of the
   origin of dreams, founded on current views in the sciences of
   consciousness and cognition. This provides a foundation for the
   methods of employing lucid dreams to enhance your life, which are
   detailed in the second half of the book. The applications considered
   are: adventures and explorations, rehearsal for living, creative
   problemsolving, overcoming nightmares, healing, and discovery of
   expanded awareness and spiritual experience. Many delightful and
   illuminating anecdotes from lucid dreamers illustrate the use of lucid
   dreams for each application.
   *CONSCIOUS MIND, SLEEPING BRAIN, edited by Jayne Gackenbach, Ph.D. and
   Stephen LaBerge, Ph.D. (Plenum, 1990) Nineteen dream researchers and
   other professionals contributed to this scholarly volume. It
   represents a wide spectrum of viewpoints in the field of lucid
   dreaming study, and is an essential reference for anyone interested in
   studying lucid dreams or applying them in clinical practice. Topics
   include: literature, psychophysiology, personality, therapy, personal
   experience, related states of consciousness, and more.
   LUCID DREAMS, by Celia E. Green (Hamish Hamilton, London, 1968) This
   is the book that inspired Dr. LaBerge to begin his studies of lucid
   dreaming. Green reviews the literature on lucid dreaming up through
   the 50's, including the Marquis de Saint-Denys' work described below.
   She also presents case histories of lucid dreamers and well
   characterizes much of the phenomenology (subjective experience) of
   lucid dreaming.
   DREAMS AND HOW TO GUIDE THEM, by The Marquis d'Hervey de Saint-Denys,
   edited by Morton Schatzman, M.D. (Duckworth, London, 1982) A great
   pioneer of the art of lucid dreaming, the Marquis first published this
   exploration of lucid dreaming in 1867, yet this is a very modern, and,
   yes, lucid, thesis. He describes his personal experiments, and the
   development of his ability to exercise control in his lucid dreams.
   Garfield, Ph.D. (Prentice Hall, 1989) Delightfully told story of
   Patricia Garfield's transcendent and erotic adventures with lucid
   *CONTROLLING YOUR DREAMS, by Stephen LaBerge, Ph.D. (Audio Renaissance
   Tapes, Inc., 1987, 60 minutes) This audio cassette tape captures the
   essence of Dr. LaBerge's public lectures on lucid dreaming. It is
   highly informative and inspirational. Use it as an excellent
   introduction to the topic or a concise refresher. Dr. LaBerge begins
   by portraying the experience of lucid dreaming. He then presents
   methods for learning the skill, including the powerful MILD technique.
   The descriptions he gives of possible applications of lucid dreaming,
   from creative problem solving and rehearsal for living, to overcoming
   nightmares and achieving greater psychological integration, will
   encourage you to learn this valuable skill.
   Lucidity Institute, 1993, 40 minutes) Dr. LaBerge's trance induction
   is designed to help you create a mind-set in which lucid dreaming will
   happen easily. The hypnotic induction begins with progressive
   relaxation accompanied by guided visualization of calming images. Once
   you have attained a peaceful state of mind, Dr. LaBerge gives you
   suggestions for creating your own certainty that you will succeed at
   having lucid dreams. You will come up with a personal symbol for
   conjuring your confidence in your ability whenever you desire.
   Email: info@lucidity.com
   The Lucidity Institute maintains a WWW site at
   ftp://ftp.lucidity.com/. Currently available files include the
   Lucidity Institute Catalog, workshop announcements, this FAQ, and
   various articles from NightLight. Files can also be emailed on
   Telephone: +1-650-321-9969 or 1-800-GO LUCID * Fax: +1-650-321-9967
   Postal: 2555 Park Blvd., #2, Palo Alto, CA 94306-1919
   *Copyright Notice*
   Copyright 1994-1996 by The Lucidity Institute, Inc. All rights
   reserved. Permission for non-commercial use is hereby granted,
   provided that this file is distributed intact.

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