Ä Area: scians ÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄ Msg#: 281 Date: 08-31-95 01:00 From: Dean Edwards Read: Yes Replied: No To: All Mark: Subj: Shamanism-General Overvie ÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄ Reply-to: "Dean Edwards"
From: "Dean Edwards" Newsgroups: soc.religion.shamanism,sci.anthropology,alt.out-of-body,alt.dreams .lucid,alt.pagan,alt.consciousness.mysticism,soc.culture.celtic,al t.mythology,soc.answers,sci.answers,alt.answers,news.answers Organization: La Casa del Paese Lontano Original Date: Thu, 31 Aug 1995 00:45:10 GMT Archive-name: shamanism/overview Last-modified: 30 Aug 1995 Version: 1.6 NOTE: The following general overview of shamanism is not intended to be the last word or the definitive work on this subject. Rather it is, as its title implies, intended to provide the participant or reader with a set of guidelines that will familiarize them with the general use of the terms shamanism, shaman and shamanic in the trends, study and practice of historic, traditional and contemporary shamanic experience. The word 'shaman comes to English from the Tungus language via Russian. Among the Tungus of Siberia it is both a noun and a verb. While the Tungus have no word for shamanism, it has come into usage by anthropologists, historians of religion and others in contemporary society to designate the experience and the practices of the shaman. Its usage has grown to include similar experiences and practices in cultures outside of the original Siberian cultures from which the term shaman originated. Thus shamanism is not the name of a religion or group of religions. Particular attention should be paid to the use of qualifying words such as "may" or "usually". They indicate examples or tendencies and are not, in any way, intended to represent rigid standards Please send comments to firstname.lastname@example.org (Dean Edwards). Shamanism-General Overview-Frequently Asked Questions (FAQ) (c November, 1993, 1994, 1995 by Dean Edwards) This FAQ shall be posted monthly and is maintained by Dean Edwards (email@example.com). It is intended for the private non-commercial use of Usenet users. It may not be sold or resold without the permission of the author. Table of Contents: 1. Terms used in this FAQ 2. What is shamanism? 3. What is Shamanic Ecstasy? 4. Becoming a shaman 5. The role of trauma in the development of a shaman 6. The relationship between shamanic traditions and culture 7. The role of Shamanic Ecstasy 8. The origin of the term "shamanism" 9. Roles of the shaman 10. Reasons for this FAQ 11. What recommended books are available on shamanism? 12. What useful books are available about Siberian, Central Asian, Finno-Uralic and Arctic shamanism? 13. What useful books are available about Celtic Shamanism? 14. What useful books are available about nontraditional contemporary shamanism? 15. What useful books are available about shamanism among Native Americans in North America? 16. What useful books are available about shamanism among Native Americans in South America? 17. What useful books are available about African shamanism? 18. What useful books are available about shamanism in South and East Asia? 19. What useful books are available about Shamanism and Ethnobotany? 1. Why were the terms used in this FAQ selected and do they have special meanings. There is an extensive literature about shamanism that has been compiled since the late Eighteenth Century. Like any field of study and religious practice, shamanism has developed a specialized vocabulary. Please note that some of the words used in the material that follows are drawn from scholars who have a solid background in shamanic studies and may have meanings that are specific and less general than is often the case in popular usage. Consulting a good dictionary should clear up any points of confusion. 2. What is Shamanism? Shamanism is classified by anthropologists as an archaic magico-religious phenomenon in which the shaman is the great master of ecstasy. Shamanism itself, was defined by the late Mircea Eliade as a technique of ecstasy. A shaman may exhibit a particular magical specialty (such as control over fire, wind or magical flight). When a specialization is present the most common is as a healer. The distinguishing characteristic of shamanism is its focus on an ecstatic trance state in which the soul of the shaman is believed to leave the body and ascend to the sky (heavens) or descend into the earth (underworld). The shaman makes use of spirit helpers, with whom he or she communicates, all the while retaining control over his or her own consciousness. (Examples of possession occur, but are the exception, rather than the rule.) It is also important to note that while most shamans in traditional societies are men, either women or men may and have become shamans. Post-Shamanic: While shamanism may be readily identified among many hunding and gathering peoples and in some traditional herding societies, identifying specific groups of individuals who might be called shamans is a difficult task in more stratified agricultural and manufacturing based societies. A society may be said to be Post- Shamanic when there are the presence of shamanic motifs in its traditional folklore or spiritual practices indicate a clear pattern of traditions of ascent into the heavens, descent into the nether- worlds, movement between this world and a parallel Otherworld, are present in its history. Such a society or tradition may have become very specialized and recombined aspects of mysticism, prophecy and shamanism into more specialized or more 'fully developed' practices and may have assigned those to highly specialized functionaries. When such practices and functionaries are present or have teplaced the traditional shamans found in historical or traditional shamanism the use of Post-shamanic is appropriate. (See Shamanism-General Overview for more information.) Dean Edwards (firstname.lastname@example.org) (August, 1995) More specifically, a society may be said to be Post-Shamanic when at least 6 of the following 8 conditions have been met: - a. Shamanic ecstasy is still present, but light trance techniques are also used to access the Otherworld. - b. Agriculture and some forms of manufacturing/crafts have replaced hunting and gathering as the primary basis for the economic life of the community. - c.The society has developed a highly stratified social structure and very specialized occupations. - d. Religion and spiritual methodology has become more fully developed and can no longer be properly referred to as 'archaic'. This is expecially important for rituals, ceremonies and ecstatic techniques which had traditionally been the domain of the shamans. - e. Mystical ecstasy and unitive visions have become at least as important esoteric experiences and doctrines as shamanic ecstasy, ascension and descent in the religious and spiritual life of the community. - f. The shaman is no longer the primary escort for the souls of the dead into their place in the next world (psychopomp). This role generally either passes onto the priestcraft or clergy to perform through ritual, is an object of individual or group prayer, or is beleived to be done by gods of guardian spirits, angels or demons. - g. A professional clergy is present which regulates the religious life of the community. - h. Other forms of healing, divining and counseling are present have replaced shamans as the primary source of such services. - Post-shamanic motifs are found among many Indo-Eruopean, Asian, African and some native peoples of North America. The use of Post-Shamanic as a term makes examination of these parallel traditons and possible survivals of earlier shamanic traditions easier. 3. What is Shamanic Ecstasy and how does it compare with other forms of ecstasy? From the Greek 'ekstasis', ecstasy literally means to be placed outside, or to be placed. This is a state of exaltation in which a person stands outside of or transcends his or herself. Ecstasy may range from the seizure of the body by a spirit or the seizure of a person by the divine, from the magical transformation or flight of consciousness to psychiatric remedies of distress. Three types of Ecstasy are specified in the literature on the subject: a. Shamanic Ecstasy b. Prophetic Ecstasy c. Mystical Ecstasy Shamanic ecstasy is provoked by the ascension of the soul of the shaman into the heavens or its descent into the underworld. These states of ecstatic exaltation are usually achieved after great and strenuous training and initiation, often under distressing circumstances. The resulting contact by the shaman with the higher or lower regions and their inhabitants, and also with nature spirits enables him or her to accomplish such tasks as accompanying the soul of a deceased into its proper place in the next world, affect the well-being of the sick and to convey the story of their inner travels upon their return to the mundane awareness. The utterances of the shaman are in contrast with those of prophetic and mystical ecstasy. The prophet literally speaks for God, while the mystic reports an overwhelming divine presence. In mysticism, the direct knowledge or experience of the divine ultimate reality, is perceptible in two ways, emotional and intuitive. While these three varieties of ecstatic experience are useful for the purposes of analysis and discussion, it is not unusual for more than one form of ecstasy to be present in an individual's experience. However, it can be argued that, generally speaking, there are three perceptive levels of ecstasy. a) The physiological response, in which the mind becomes absorbed in and focused on a dominant idea, the attention is withdrawn and the nervous system itself is in part cut off from physical sensory input. The body exhibits reflex inertia, involuntary nervous responses, frenzy. b) Emotional perception of ecstasy refers to overwhelming feelings of awe, anxiety, joy, sadness, fear, astonishment, passion, etc. c) Intuitive perception communicates a direct experience and understanding of the transpersonal experience of expanded states of awareness or consciousness. While the physiological response is always present, the emotional response may or may not be significant when intuition is the principal means of ecstatic perception. Some have argued that beyond the intuitive state there is a fourth condition in which the holistic perception exceeds mental and emotional limitations and understanding. The ecstatic experience of the shaman goes beyond a feeling or perception of the sacred, the demonic or of natural spirits. It involves the shaman directly and actively in transcendent realities or lower realms of being. These experiences may occur in either the dream state, the awakened state, or both. Dreams, and in particular, lucid dreams, often play a significant role in the life of a shaman or shamanic candidate. 4. How does one become a shaman? Some have wondered if the experience of shamanic ecstasy or flight makes a person a shaman. Generally speaking, most would say no. A shaman is more than someone with an experience. First, he or she is a trained initiate. Usually years of enculturalization and training under a mentor precede becoming a functioning shaman. Second, a shaman is not just an initiate who has received inner and outer training, but is a master of shamanic journeying and techniques (shamanic ecstasy). This is not a casual acquaintance with such abilities, there is some degree of mastery of them. Finally, a shaman is a link or bridge between this world and the next. This is a sacred trust and a service to the community. Sometimes a community that a shaman serves in is rather small. In other instances it may be an entire nation. A lot of that depends on social and cultural factors. One becomes a shaman by one of three methods: a) Hereditary transmission; b) Spontaneous selection or "call" or "election"; c) personal choice and quest. (This latter method is less frequent and traditionally such a shaman is considered less powerful than one selected by one of the two preceding methods.) The shaman is not recognized as legitimate without having undergone two types of training: a) Ecstatic (dreams, trances, etc.) b) Traditional ("shamanic techniques, names and functions of spirits, mythology and genealogy of the clan, secret language, etc.) The two-fold course of instruction, given by the spirits and the old master shamans is equivalent to an initiation." (Mircea Eliade, The Encyclopedia of Religion, v. 13 , p. 202; Mcmillian, N.Y., 1987.) It is also possible for the entire process to take place in the dream state or in ecstatic experience. Thus, there is more to becoming a shaman than a single experience. It requires training, perseverance and service. 5. What is the role of personal crisis or trauma or crisis in the selection or development of a shaman? A common experience of the call to shamanism is a psychic or spiritual crisis, which often accompanies a physical or even a medical crisis, and is cured by the shaman him or herself. This is a common occurrence for all three types of shamanic candidates described above. The shaman is often marked by eccentric behavior such as periods of melancholy, solitude, visions, singing in his or her sleep, etc. The inability of the traditional remedies to cure the condition of the shamanic candidate and the eventual self cure by the new shaman is a significant episode in development of the shaman. The underlying significant aspect of this experience, when it is present, is the ability of the shaman to manage and resolve periods of distress. 6. Does the presence of an active shamanic tradition necessarily mean that the society itself should be deemed "shamanic"? No, not at all. The presence of shamanism in a nation or a community does not mean that shamanism is central to the spiritual or religious life of the community or region. Shamanism often exists alongside and even in cooperation with the religious or healing practices of the community. 7. What is meant by shamanic ecstasy and what role does it actually play in shamanism? The ecstatic technique of shamanism does not involve itself in the broad range of ecstasy reported in the history of religion. It is specifically focused on the transpersonal movement of the consciousness of the shaman into higher or lower realms of consciousness and existence. Another aspect of shamanism is that compared to other spiritual traditions, it is a path that the individual walks alone. While much of the focus of shamanic studies has been on the shamanic complexes of north and central Asia, shamanism is a universal phenomenon, not confined to any particular region or culture. 8. What is the origin of the word "shaman"? Shaman comes from the language of the Tungus of North-Central Asia. It came into use in English via Russian. 9. What are the usual roles of a shaman? In contemporary, historical or traditional shamanic practice the shaman may at times fill the role of priest, magician, metaphysician or healer. Personal experience is the prime determinant of the status of a shaman. Knowledge of other realms of being and consciousness and the cosmology of those regions is the basis of the shamanic perspective and power. With this knowledge, the shaman is able to serve as a bridge between the mundane and the higher and lower states The shaman lives at the edge of reality as most people would recognize it and most commonly at the edge of society itself. Few indeed have the stamina to adventure into these realms and endure the outer hardships and personal crises that have been reported by or observed of many shamans. 10. Why was this FAQ written? This FAQ was originally written to support a new Usenet newsgroup, 'soc.religion.shamanism'. The purpose of this newsgroup is to provide a forum for discussion and exchange of ideas, views and information about historic, traditional, tribal and contemporary shamanism. This FAQ is intended to provide a useful general overview of what 'shamanism' actually means and what it is in practice. In doing so, it has focused on shamanic ecstasy as being at the heart of shamanic experience and practice. Many other aspects of shamanic experience are encountered in the journey toward that center. Likewise, much is also experienced in the journey out from that core experience. 11. What recommended books are available on shamanism? (Items denoted by * are currently in print.) *1. 91-21838. Ashe, Geoffrey. Dawn behind the dawn: a search for an earthly paradise. Geoffrey Ashe. 1st ed. New York: H. Holt, 1992. viii, 274 p. : ill., map ; 25 cm. LC CALL NUMBER: BL311 .A74 1991 *2. Christman, Brian. Music & Trance in the Shamanic Universe. (Orig.) Redwood Seed. 1993. 44p. pap. 3. 75-901516: Crookall, Robert, 1890- Ecstasy: the release of the soul from the body. 1st ed. Moradabad: Darshana International, 1973. 163 p. ; 25 cm. LC CALL NUMBER: BF1389.A7 C649 *4. 91-115619: Eliade, Mircea, 1907- Shamanism : archaic techniques of ecstasy. London, England: Arkana, 1989. xxiii, 610 p.; 22 cm. LC CALL NUMBER: BL2370.S5 E42 *5. 91-21073: Flaherty, Gloria, 1938- Shamanism and the eighteenth century. Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press, c1992. xv, 320 p. : ill.; 25 cm. LC CALL NUMBER: BL2370.S5 F53 1992 6. 89-45567: Goodman, Felicitas D. Where the spirits ride the wind: trance journeys and other ecstatic experiences. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, c1990. xii, 242 p. : ill. ; 25 cm. LC CALL NUMBER: BF1389.A7 G66 1990 *7. 82-132245: Grim, John. Reflections on shamanism: the tribal healer and the technological trance. Chambersburg, PA: Published for the American Teilhard Association for the Future of Man by; Anima Books, c1981. 16 p. 23 cm. LC CALL NUMBER: E98.R3 G74 1981 *8. 92-53905: Halifax, Joan. The fruitful darkness: reconnecting with the body of the earth.1st ed. [San Francisco] : HarperSanFrancisco, c1993. xxxi, 240 p. : ill. ; 21 cm. LC CALL NUMBER: BL624 .H26 1993 *9. 81-67705: Halifax, Joan. Shaman, the wounded healer. New York: Crossroad, c1982. 96 p.: ill. (some col.); 28 cm. London: Thames & Hudson, 1982, 1987. LC CALL NUMBER: BL2370.S5 H33 1982 *10. Harner, Michael J. Hallucinogens & Shamanism. Oxford University Press, 1973.. xv, 200 p. illus. 22 cm. LC CALL NUMBER: BL65.D7 H37 *11. 90-44703: Heinze, Ruth-Inge. Shamans of the 20th century; with contributions by Charlotte Berney [et al.]. New York: Irvington, 1991. xx, 259 p. : ill. ; 23 cm. LC CALL NUMBER: BL2370.S5 H418 1991 12. 90-175691: Hoppal, Mihaly and Sadovszky, Otto von, edited by. Shamanism: past and present. Budapest: Ethnographic Institute, Hungarian Academy of Sciences; Los Angeles: International Society for Trans-Oceanic Research, 1989. 2 v.: ill.; 24 cm. LC CALL NUMBER: BL2370.S5 S4915 1989 *13. 94-43549: International Conference on the Study of Shamanism and Alternate Modes of Healing (11th: 1994: San Rafael, Calif.) Proceedings of the Eleventh International Conference on the Study of Shamanism and Alternate Modes of Healing: held at the Santa Sabina Center, San Rafael, California, September 3 to 5, 1994/ Berkeley, Calif. : Independent Scholars of Asia, c1994. p. cm. LC CALL NUMBER: BL2370.S5 I55 1993 *14. 94-2722: International Conference on the Study of Shamanism and Alternate Modes of Healing (10th : 1993: San Rafael, Calif.) Proceedings of the Tenth International Conference on the Study of Shamanism & Alternate Modes of Healing: held at the St. Sabina Center, San Rafael, California, September 4 to 6, 1993; Berkeley: Independent Scholars .of Asia, 1994. p. cm. LC CALL NUMBER: BL2370.S5 I55 1993 *15. 92-47429: International Conference on the Study of Shamanism and Alternate Modes of Healing (9th : 1992: San Rafael, Calif.) Proceedings of the Ninth International Conference on the Study of Shamanism and Alternate Modes of Healing: held at the St. Sabina Center, San Rafael, California, September 5 to 7, 1992 / Berkeley, Calif. : Independent Scholars of Asia, 1992. ix, 323 p. ; 23 cm. LC CALL NUMBER: BL2370.S5 I55 1992 *16. 92-6776: International Conference on the Study of Shamanism and Alternate Modes of Healing (8th : 1991: San Rafael, Calif.) Proceedings of the Eighth International Conference on the Study of Shamanism and Alternate Modes of Healing: held at the St. Sabina Center, San Rafael, California, August 31 to September 2, 1991. [Berkeley] : Independent Scholars of Asia, c1991. vii, 354 p. : ill. ; 23 cm. LC CALL NUMBER: BL2370.S5 I55 1991 *17. 92-50127: Kalweit, Holger. Shamans, healers, and medicine men. 1st ed. Boston : Shambhala, 1992. x, 299 p.,  p. of plates: ill.; 23 cm. LC CALL NUMBER: BL2370.S5 K35813 1992 *18. 87-28842: Kalweit, Holger. Dreamtime & inner space: the world of the shaman / 1st ed. Boston : Shambhala Publications ; [New York, N.Y.] : Random House [Distributor], 1988. xvi, 297 p. ; 23 cm. LC CALL NUMBER: BL2370.S5 K3513 1988 *19. 86-40405: Nicholson, Shirley; compiled by. Shamanism: an expanded view of reality edited by 1st ed. Wheaton, Ill., U.S.A.: Theosophical Pub. House, 1987. xxiii, 295 p.; 21 cm. LC CALL NUMBER: BL2370.S5 S48 1987 *20. 92-5415: Ripinsky-Naxon, Michael, 1944- The nature of shamanism: substance and function of a religious metaphor. Abany, N.Y. : State University of New York Press, c1993. xi, 289 p.: ill. ; 24 cm. LC CALL NUMBER: BL2370.S5 R52 1993 *21. 85-1107. Rouget, Gilbert. [Musique et la transe. English] Music and trance: a theory of the relations between music and possession. Gilbert Rouget ; translation from the French revised by Brunhilde Biebuyck in collaboration with the author. Chicago : University of Chicago Press, 1985 . xix, 395 p.: ill ; 24 cm. LC CALL NUMBER: ML3920 .R813 1985 *22. 92-46586: Sansonese, J. Nigro. The body of myth: mythology, shamanic trance, and the sacred geography of the body. Rochester, Vt.: Inner Traditions; [s.l.]: Distributed to the book trade in the U.S. by International Distribution Corp., c1994. p. cm. LC CALL NUMBER: BL313 .S326 1994 *23. ocm27-490807: Siikala, Anna-Leena. Studies on shamanism/ Helsinki: Finnish Anthropological Society; Budapest: Akademiai Kiado, 1992. 230 p.: ill.; 24 cm. LC CALL NUMBER: BL 2370 S5S66 1992 *24. 93-246913. Thorpe, S. A. Shamans, medicine men and traditional healers: a comparative study of shamanism in Siberian Asia, Southern Africa and North America. S.A. Thorpe. 1st ed. Pretoria: University of South Africa, 1993. 146 p. ; 22 cm. LC CALL NUMBER: BL2370.S5 T48 1993 *25. 86-31810: Villoldo, Alberto. Healing states. New York: Simon & Schuster, 1987. xvi, 207 p.,  p. of plates: ill.; 21 cm. LC CALL NUMBER: RZ400 .V5 1987 *26. 89-48642: Walsh, Roger N. The spirit of shamanism; Los Angeles: J.P. Tarcher, 1990. p. cm. LC CALL NUMBER: BL2370.S5.W35 26. Witchcraft and sorcery of the American native peoples / edited by Deward E. Walker, Jr. ; preface by David Carrasco. Moscow, Idaho : University of Idaho Press, c1989. xi, 346 p.: ill., maps; 26 cm. LC CALL NUMBER: E59.R38 W58 1989 12. What usrful books are available about Siberian, Central Asian, Finno-Uralic and Arctic shamanism? 1. 91-22-00863-22: Ahlback, Tore. Saami Religion: Based on papers read at the symposium on Saami religion held at Abo, Finland, 16th - 18th August 1984. Stockholm: Almqvist & Wiksell International, 1987. 293 p. LC CALL NUMBER BL 980 L3 2. 78-313734: Backman, Louise, 1926- Studies in Lapp shamanism. Stockholm: Almqvist & Wiksell International, 1978. 128 p.: ill.; 24 cm. LC CALL NUMBER: BL980.L3 B34 *3. 1. 95-127754: Circumpolar religion and ecology: an anthropology of the North. Tokyo : University of Tokyo Press, c1994. xiii, 458 p.: ill., maps ; 24 cm. LC CALL NUMBER: GN673 .C57 1994 *4. 89-77158: Balzer, Marjorie M., ed. Shamanism: Soviet Studies of Traditional Religion in Siberia & Central Asia. Armonk, N.Y.: M.E. Sharpe, c1990. xviii, 197 p.: ill. ; 24 cm. LC CALL NUMBER: BL2370.S5 S492 1990 5. Blodgett, Jean. The coming and going of the shaman : Eskimo shamanism and art : the Winnipeg Art Gallery March 11 to June 11, 1978. Jean Blodgett, Curator of Eskimo Art. [Winnipeg]: The Gallery, [c1979]. LC CALL NumBER: E 99 E7 B6585 1979 6. 15-13480: Czaplicka, Marie Antoinette, d. 1921. Aboriginal Siberia, a study in social anthropology, Oxford, Clarendon press, 1914. xiv p., 1 l., 374,  p. 16 pl., 2 fold. maps. 24 cm. LC CALL NUMBER: GN635.S5 C8 7. Dioszegi, Vilmos. Popular beliefs and folklore tradition in Siberia. Edited by V. Dioszegi. English translation rev. by Stephen P. Dunn.. Bloomington, Indiana University, c1968. (Series title: Uralic and Altaic series ; v. 57). LC CALL NUMBER: GR345 .D513 8. 79-300802: Dioszegi and M. Hoppal., editors. Shamanism in Siberia. Budapest: Akademiai Kiado, 1978. 531 p. : ill. ; 25 cm. LC CALL NUMBER: BL2370.S5 S49 9. 70-398375: Dioszegi, Vilmos. Tracing Shamans in Siberia. The story of an ethnographical research expedition. [Oosterhout] Anthropological Publications  328 p., 24 p. of photos. 20 cm. LC CALL NUMBER: BL2370 .S5D513 *10. 83-47834: Grim, John. The shaman: patterns of Siberian and Ojibway healing / Norman : University of Oklahoma Press, c1983. :xiv, 258 p. ill.; 22 cm. LC CALL NUMBER: BL2370.S5 G75 1983 11. 70-864890: Hatto, A. T. (Arthur Thomas) Shamanism and epic poetry in Northern Asia, London, University of London (School of Oriental and African Studies), 1970. , 19 p. 25 cm. LC CALL NUMBER: BL2370.S5 H37 12. 86-161648: Saami pre-Christian religion : studies on the oldest traces of religion among the Saamis / Stockholm : Universitet Stockholms : [Distributed by] Almqvist & Wiksell International, c1985. 212 p. : ill., maps ; 24 cm. LC CALL NUMBER: BL980.L3 S22 1985 *13. 93-215323: Hoppal, M. & Pentikainen, J., eds. Northern religions and shamanism; Budapest : Akademiai Kiado ; Helsinki : Finnish Literature Society, 1992. xv, 214 p. : ill.; 24 cm. LC CALL NUMBER: BL685 .N678 1992 14. 85-672605: Hoppal, Mihaly, editor. Shamanism in Eurasia. Gottingen: Edition Herodot,. c1984. 2 v. (xxi, 475 p.): ill. ; 24 cm. LC CALL NUMBER: BL2370.S5 S487 1984 *15. 95-9141: Leonard, Linda Schierse. Creation's heartbeat: following the reindeer spirit. New York: Bantam Books, 1995. p. cm. 16. 88-46031: Pentikainen, Juha. Kalevala mythology. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, c1989. xix, 265 p.: ill.; 25 cm. LC CALL NUMBER: PH326 .P4613 1989 17. 79-322371: Siikala, Anna-Leena. The rite technique of the Siberian shaman. Helsinki: Suomalainen tiedeakatemia: Akateeminen kitjakauppa [jakaja], 1978. 385 p.; 24 cm. LC CALL NUMBER: GR1 .F55 no. 220 *18. 92-169420: Symposium on the Saami Shaman Drum (1988: Turku, Finland) The Saami Shaman Drum: based on papers read at the Symposium on the Saami Shaman Drum held at Abo, Finland, on the 19th-20th of August 1988. Abo, Finland : Donner Institute for Research in Religious and Cultural History; Stockholm, Sweden : Distributed by Almqvist & Wiksell International, 1991. 182 p.: ill.; 25 cm. LC CALL NUMBER: DL42.L36 S96 1988 13. What useful books are available about Celtic Shamanism? (Note: There are also a number of other materials available on contemporary and traditional celtic practices by John and Caitlin Mathews and R. J. Stewart.) *1. 92-53909: Cowan, Thomas Dale. Fire in the head: shamanism and the Celtic spirit / 1st ed. [San Francisco]: HarperSanFrancisco,; c1993. 222 p. 24 cm. LC CALL NUMBER: BL900 .C69 1993 2. 88-132275: Naddair, Kaledon. Keltic folk & faerie tales: their hidden meaning explored. London : Century, c1987. 269 p.: ill.; 25 cm. LC CALL NUMBER: MLCM 91/03322 (G) *3. 94-33811: Matthews, Caitlin, 1952- Encyclopedia of Celtic wisdom : the Celtic shaman's sourcebook; Shaftsbury, Dorset ; Rockport, Mass.: Element, 1994. p. cm. LC CALL NUMBER: BL900 .M466 1994 *4. 94-22046: Matthews, John, 1948- The Celtic shaman's pack: exploring the inner worlds; Shaftesbury, Dorset ; Rockport, Mass.: Element, 1994. p. cm. *5. 91-46470: Stewart, R. J., 1949- Earth light : the ancient path to transformation: rediscovering the wisdom of Celtic and faery lore. Rockport, MA : Element, 1992. p. cm. *6. 92-32310: Stewart, R. J., 1949- Power within the land: the roots of Celtic and underworld traditions, awakening the sleepers, and regenerating the earth. Shaftesbury, Dorset ; Rockport, MA: Element, 1992. xxiii, 163 p. : ill.; 23 cm. LC CALL NUMBER: BF1552 .S75 1992 14. What useful books are available about nontraditional contemporary shamanism? The following is a list of some materials available on contemproary nontraditional shamanism? (Please note that the following books may also contain useful information about tradtiional or historical aspects of shamanism.) *1. 84-20748: Achterberg, Jeanne. Imagery in healing : shamanism and modern medicine / 1st ed. Boston : New Science Library, Shambhala ; New York: Distributed in the U.S. by Random House, 1985. viii, 253 p.: ill.; 23 cm. LC CALL NUMBER: R726.5 .A24 1985 *2. 91-55334: Arrien, Angeles 1940- The four-fold way : walking the paths of the warrior, teacher, healer, and visionary.1st ed. [San Francisco] : HarperSanFrancisco, c1993. xviii, 203 p. : ill. ; 24 cm. LC CALL NUMBER: BF1611 .A76 1993 3. Tom Brown. Awakening Spirits. 15. Serge King. Urban Shaman 22. Vicki Noble. Uncoiling the Snake. 23. Gabrielle Roth. Maps to Ecstasy. *4. 94-35159: Cruden, Loren, The spirit of place: a workbook for sacred alignment. Rochester, Vt.: Destiny Books, c1995. p. cm. *5. 87-32233: Doore, Gary, compiled & edited by. Shaman's path: healing, personal growth & empowerment. 1st ed. Boston: Shambhala: Distributed in the U.S.A. by Random House, 1988. xii, 236 p. ; 23 cm. LC CALL NUMBER: BL2370.S5 S525 1988 6. 81-15771: Drury, Nevill, 1947- The shaman and the magician: journeys between the worlds. London ; Boston: Routledge & Kegan Paul, 1982. xii, 129 p.: ill.; 22 cm. LC CALL NUMBER: BL2370.S5 D783 1982 *7. 95-18506: Espinoza, Luis. Chamalu: the shamanic way of the heart. Rochester, Vt.: Destiny Books, 1995. p. cm. *8. 89-46444: Harner, Michael J. The way of the shaman; 10th anniversary ed., 1st Harper & Row pbk. ed., San Francisco: Harper & Row, 1990. xxiv, 171 p. : ill. ; 25 cm. LC CALL NUMBER: RZ401 .H187 1990 *9. 94-144219: Hughes-Calero, Heather. Circle of power / Sedona, Ariz. : Higher Consciousness Books, 1993 137 p. : ill. ; 24 cm. LC CALL NUMBER: MLCM 94/13514 (B) *10. 91-73187: Hughes-Calero, Heather. The flight of Winged Wolf: 1st ed. Carmel, Calif. : Higher Consciousness Books, 1991. 159 p.: ill.; 23 cm. LC CALL NUMBER: BF1999 .H379 1991 *11. Hughes-Calero, Heather. The Shamanic Journey of Living as Soul. 1st ed.; Carmel, Calif.: Higher Consciousness Books,1994. 144 p.: ill.; 23 cm. *12. 89-82151: Hughes-Calero, Heather. Woman between the wind. 1st ed. Carmel, Calif.: Higher Consciousness Books,1990. 156 p.: ill. ; 23 cm. LC CALL NUMBER: MLCM 92/13881 (P) *13. 90-56447: Ingerman, Sandra. Soul retrieval: mending the fragmented self.1st ed. San Francisco, Calif.: HarperSanFrancisco, c1991. xii, 221 p. : ill. ; 23 cm. LC CALL NUMBER: BL65.M4 I45 1991 *14. 93-4429: Ingerman, Sandra. Welcome home : following your soul's journey home. 1st ed. [San Francisco, Calif.]: HarperSanFrancisco,. c1993, 187 p. : ill. ; 24 cm. LC CALL NUMBER: BL65.M4 I453 1993 15. 86-28856: Jamal, Michele. Shape shifters : shaman women in contemporary society / New York : Arkana, 1987. xx, 204 p. : ports. ; 20 cm. LC CALL NUMBER: BL458 .J36 1987 *16. 93-48357: Keeney, Bradford P. Shaking out the spirits : a psychotherapist's entry into the healing mysteries of global shamanism. Barrytown, N.Y. : Station Hill Press, c1994. vi, 179 p.: ill. ; 23 cm. LC CALL NUMBER: BF1611 .K33 1994 *17. 90-39839: King, Serge. Urban shaman. New York: Simon & Schuster, c1990. 256 p.; 22 cm. LC CALL NUMBER: BL2370.S5 K58 1990 *18. Larsen, Stephen. The Shaman's Doorway: Opening Imagination to Power & Myth.. Barrytown, N.Y.: Station Hill Press, 1988. xii, 258 p.: ill. ; 24 cm. LC CALL NUMBER: BL304 .L37 1988 *19. 92-195879: Meadows, Kenneth. Earth medicine: a shamanic way to self discovery. Shaftesbury, Dorset ; Rockport, Mass.: Element, 1991. xi, 333 p. : ill. ; 24 cm. LC CALL NUMBER: BF1622.U6 M43 1989 *20. 92-194584: Meadows, Kenneth. The medicine way: a shamanic path to self mastery. Shaftesbury, Dorset ; Rockport, Mass.: Element,1991. xx, 228 p. : ill. ; 24 cm. LC CALL NUMBER: BF1622.U6 M44 1991 *21. 91-37142: Meadows, Kenneth. Shamanic experience : a practical guide to contemporary shamanism. Shaftesbury, Dorset; Rockport, Mass. : Element, 1991. 196 p.: ill. ; 24 cm. LC CALL NUMBER: BF1611 .M42 1991 *22. 92-56408: Mindell, Arnold. The shaman's body : a new shamanism for transforming health, relationships, and community. 1st HarperCollins pbk. ed. [San Francisco, CA]: HarperSanFrancisco, 1993. xvi, 236 p.; 21 cm. LC CALL NUMBER: BF1611. M56 1993 *23. 95-12177: Natale, Frank. Trance dance: the dance of life. Rockport, Mass.: Element, 1995. p. cm. *24. 91-58922: Noble, Vicki. Uncoiling the snake: ancient patterns in contemporary women's lives: a snake power reader. 1st ed. San Francisco, Calif.: HarperSanFrancisco, c1993. xv, 189 p.: ill.; 24 cm. LC CALL NUMBER: BF1611 .N63 1993 *25. 89-45959: Noble, Vicki. Shakti woman: feeling our fire, healing our world: the new female shamanism. 1st ed. San Francisco, Calif. HarperSanFrancisco, c1991. x, 255 p.: ill.; 25 cm. LC CALL NUMBER: BL625.7 .N63 1991 *26. 91-42561: Roth, Gabrielle. Maps to ecstasy: teachings of an urban shaman. San Rafael, Calif.: New World Library, 1989, 1992. p. cm. LC CALL NUMBER: BL2370.S5 R67 1992 *27. 90-29017: Scott, Gini Graham. Shamanism & personal mastery: using symbols, rituals, and talismans to activate the powers within you.1st ed. New York : Paragon House, 1991. xiii, 284 p. ; 23 cm. LC CALL NUMBER: BF1611 .S39 1991 *28. Tucker, Michael. Dreaming with open eyes: The shamanic spirit in twentieth century art and culture. San Francisco: Aquarius/ HarperSanFrancisco, 1992. xxiii, 432 p., ill., 25 cm. LC CALL NumBER: BL2370.S5 T83 1992 *29. 94-30646: Warter, Carlos. Recovery of the sacred : lessons in soul awareness; Deerfield Beach, Fla.: Health Communications, Inc., c1994. p. cm. *30. 90-55404: Whitaker, Kay Cordell. The reluctant shaman : a woman's first encounters with the unseen spirits of the earth. 1st ed. [San Francisco, Calif.]: HarperSanFrancisco, c1991. viii, 296 p. ; 22 cm. LC CALL NUMBER: BL73.W45 A3 1991 15. What useful books are available about shamanism among Native Americans in North America? 1. Hultkrantz, Ake. The North American Indian Orpheus tradition; a contribution to comparative religion. Stockholm, 1957. 339 p. 25 cm. Series: Ethnographical Museum of Sweden, Stockholm. Monograph series, publication no. 2. LC CALL NUMBER 98.R3 H82 2. 92-18476. Hultkrantz, Ake. Shamanic healing and ritual drama: health and medicine in native North American religious traditions. New York: Crossroad, 1992. LC CALL NUMBER: E98.R3 H825 1992 3. Johnson, Ronald. The art of the shaman. Iowa City, Iowa : University of Iowa Museum of Art' 1973. 32 p.: ill. 26 cm. LC CALL NUMBER: E78 N78 J636 4a. Park, Willard Zerbe. Shamanism in western North America; a study in cultural relationships, by Willard Z. Park. Evanston and Chicago, Northwestern University, 1938. viii, 166 p. 24 cm. LC CALL NUMBER: H31. N6 no.2 4b. Park, Willard P. (Willard Zerbe) Shamanism in western North America; a study in cultural relationships, by Willard Z. Park. New York, Cooper Square Publishers, 1975. viii, 166 p. 24 cm. Reprint of the 1938 ed. published by Northwestern University, Evanston. viii, 166 p. 24 cm. LC CALL NUMBER: E98.R3 P23 1975 5. The Shaman from Elko : papers in honor of Joseph L. Henderson on his seventy-fifth birthday / [editorial committee, Gareth Hill, chairman ... et al.]. San Francisco : C. G. Jung Institute of San Francisco, c1978. 272 p.; 23 cm. LC CALL NUMBER: RC509 .S53 16. What useful books are available about shamanism among Native Americans in South America? 1. 91-42609: Portals of power: Shamanism in South America. Eedited by E. Jean Matteson Langdon and Gerhard Baer. 1st ed. Albuquerque: University of New Mexico Press, c1992. x, 350 p.: ill., map ; 24 cm. LC CALL NUMBER: F2230.1.R3 P65 1992 2. 81-103991: Spirits, shamans, and stars: perspectives from South America. Editors: David L. Browman, Ronald A. Schwarz. The Hague; New York: Mouton, c1979. vii, 276 p.: ill.; 24 cm. LC CALL NUMBER: F2230.1.M4 S68 *3. 87-10643: Wilbert, Johannes. Tobacco and shamanism in South America. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1987. xix, 294 p.: ill.; 25 cm. Series title: Psychoactive plants of the world. LC CALL NUMBER: F2230.1.T63 W55 1987 4. 89-20493: Witchcraft and sorcery of the American native peoples. Edited by Deward E. Walker, Jr.; preface by David Carrasco. Moscow, Idaho: University of Idaho wress, c1989. xi, 346 p.: ill., maps; 26 cm. LC CALL NUMBER: E59.R38 W58 1989 *5. 87-10643: Wilbert, Johannes. Tobacco and shamanism in South America. New Haven: Yale University Press, c1987. xix, 294 p.: ill. ; 25 cm. LC CALL NUMBER: F2230.1.T63 W55 1987 17. What useful books are available about African shamanism? 1. 89-205906: Culture, experience, and pluralism : essays on African ideas of illness and healing. Uppsala : Academiae Upsaliensis; Stockholm, Sweden: Distributed by Almqvist & Wiksell International, 1989. 308 p.: ill.; 24 cm. LC CALL NUMBER: GN645 .C85 1989 18. What useful books are available about shamanism in South and East Asia? 1. 55-28909: [Ch'u, Yuan] ca. 343-ca. 277 B.C. The nine songs; a study of shamanism in ancient China London, G. Allen and Unwin  64 p. 23 cm. LC CALL NUMBER: BL1825 .C45 1955 2. 86-183798: Covell, Alan Carter. Folk art and magic: Shamanism in Korea. Seoul, Korea: Hollym Corp., c1986. 216 p.: ill (some col.); 25 cm. LC CALL NUMBER: BL2236.S5 C68 1986 3. 83-81487: Covell, Alan Carter. Ecstasy : Shamanism in Korea Elizabeth, N.J.: Hollym International, 1983. 107 p.: ill. (some col.); 26 cm. LC CALL NUMBER: BL2370.S5 C68 1983 4. 78-27500: Harvey, Youngsook Kim. Six Korean women: the socialization of shamans. St. Paul: West Pub. Co., c1979. xi, 326 p.,  leaves of plates : ill.; 25 cm. LC CALL NUMBER: BL2370.S5 H36 5. 87-37256 Heinze, Ruth-Inge. Trance and healing in Southeast Asia today. Bangkok, Thailand: White Lotus Co.; Berkeley [Calif.]: Independent Scholars of Asia, 1988. ix, 406 p.: col. ill.; 22 cm. LC CALL NUMBER: BL2370.S5 H42 1988 6. 84-244601: Korean folklore. U.S. ed. Seoul, Korea: Si-sa- yong-o-sa Publishers; Arch Cape, Or., U.S.A.: Pace International Research, c1983. viii, 312 p.: ill.; 23 cm. *7. 94-2375: Lee, Jae Hoon. The exploration of the inner wounds--Han. Atlanta, Ga.: Scholars Press, c1994. ix, 188 p.; 23 cm. LC CALL NUMBER: BF575.H26 L44 1994 8. 82-133339: Lee, Jung Young. Korean shamanistic rituals. The Hague; New York: Mouton, c1981. xvi, 249 p.: ill.; 24 cm. LC CALL NUMBER: BL2236.S5 L43 1981 9. 87-71271: Shamanism: the spirit world of Korea / Berkeley, Calif.: Asian Humanities Press, 1988. 190 p.; 23 cm. LC CALL NUMBER: BL2236.S5 S48 1988 *10. 94-23024: Maskarinec, Gregory Gabriel. The rulings of the night: an ethnography of Nepalese shaman oral texts. Madison, Wis. : University of Wisconsin Press, c1995. p. cm. *12. 92-23545: Desjarlais, Robert R. Body and emotion : the aesthetics of illness and healing in the Nepal Himalayas. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, c1992. xii, 300 p.: ill., map; 24 cm. LC CALL NUMBER: BL2033.5.S52 D45 1992 13. 88-40440: Mumford, Stan. Himalayan dialogue : Tibetan lamas and Gurung shamans in Nepal / Madison, Wis.: University of Wisconsin Press, c1989. xii, 286 p.: ill.; 24 cm. LC CALL NUMBER: BL2034.3.G93 M85 1989 14. 81-52908: Peters, Larry. Ecstasy and healing in Nepal : an ethnopsychiatric study of Tamang shamanism. Malibu, Calif.: Undena Publications, 1981. 179 p. : ill. ; 23 cm. LC CALL NUMBER: DS493.9.T35 P47 1981 15. 76-902895: Spirit possession in the Nepal Himalayas. New Delhi: Vikas Pub. House, c1976. xxviii, 401 p. : ill., map ; 25 cm. LC CALL NUMBER: BL482 .S64 *16. 90-42659: Walraven, Boudewijn. Songs of the shaman: the ritual chants of the Korean mudang. London ; New York : Kegan Paul International, 1994. x, 307 p. ; 25 cm. LC CALL NUMBER: BL2236.S5 W35 1994 19. What useful books are available about Shamanism and Ethnobotany? 1. 92-50768: Plotkin, Mark J. Tales of a shaman's apprentice: an ethnobotanist searches for new medicines in the Amazon rain foresti. New York: Viking, 1993. x, 318 p.,  p. of plates : ill.; 24 cm. LC CALL NUMBER: F2230.1.B7 P56 1993 Dean Edwards email@example.com End of FAQ -!- MailGate 0.25 ! Origin: La Cosa Nostra Insane Asylum / LaCosa.Com (1:2002/151)